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PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS AND ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS - TYPES, MATERIALS, APPLICATIONS, NEW DEVELOPMENTS, INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND GLOBAL MARKETS
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Publish Date: Aug 2016,   Pages: 210,   Report Code: ET-127
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1. INTRODUCTION1-7
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STUDY GOAL AND OBJECTIVES............................................................... 2

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY.......................................................... 2

CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE STUDY............................................................ 4

SCOPE AND FORMAT..................................................................................... 4

METHODOLOGY............................................................................................... 5

INFORMATION SOURCES............................................................................. 5

TARGET AUDIENCE FOR THE STUDY.................................................... 6

AUTHOR’S CREDENTIALS............................................................................ 6

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2. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY8-12
$350.00
$315.00

SUMMARY TABLE: GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS AND ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS COMBINED (NON-MILITARY), 2015 AND 2020 11

SUMMARY FIGURE: PERCENTAGES OF MARKET SHARE FOR PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS AND ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS, 2015 AND 2020............................................................................... 12

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3. INDUSTRY OVERVIEW13-16
$280.00
$252.00

MANUFCTURERS...........................................................................................                   13

USERS OF VIBRATION SENSORS/FORCE SENSORS/PRESSURE SENSORS........................................................................................................................   14

USERS OF ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS............................................                          15

SPECIALIST GROUPS...................................................................................                    16

ASSOCIATIONS...............................................................................................                   16

GOVERNMENT REGULATING BODIES FOR MEDICAL IMAGING                                  16

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4. TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW17-55
$1,365.00
$1,228.50

THE PIEZOELECTRIC EFFECT AND TECHNOLOGY.......................                                         17

FERROELECTRIC DOMAINS AND POLARIZATION TO PIEZOELECTRIC..........................................................................                                               18

ORTHOGONAL SYSTEM FOR PIEZOELECTRIC MATERIALS                                                18

FIGURE 1: ORTHOGONAL SYSTEM TO DESCRIBE PIEZOELECTRIC MATERIALS....................................................................................                                              19

DIRECT AND INVERSE PIEZO EFFECTS..................................                                                19

MODES OF PIEZOELECTRIC EFFECTS.....................................                                               20

TABLE 1: FIVE MODES OF PIEZOELECTRIC EFFECTS......                                                     20

DEFINITIONS OF COMMON TERMS USED IN PIZO SENSORS AND TRANDUCERS...........................................................................................                                  21

PIEZOELECTRIC CHARGE CONSTANT.....................................                                               21

TABLE 2: PIEZOELECTRIC CHARGE CONSTANTS...............                                                  22

PIEZOELECTRIC VOLTAGE CONSTANT...................................                                                22

TABLE 3: PIEZOELECTRIC VOLTAGE CONSTANTS............                                                    23

PERMITTIVITY....................................................................................                                        23

TABLE 4: PIEZOELECTRIC PERMITTIVITY.............................                                                 24

ELECTROMECHANICAL COUPLING FACTOR (SPECIFIC TO ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS)..............................................                                                                         24

TABLE 5: PIEZOELECTRIC ELECTROMECHANICAL COUPLING FACTORS.........................................................................................                                         25

DIELECTRIC DISSIPATION FACTOR OR DIELECTRIC LOSS FACTOR (SPECIFIC TO ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS).................                                                                             25

CURIE TEMPERATURE...................................................................                                        26

MECHANICAL QUALITY FACTOR...............................................                                           26

ACOUSTIC IMPEDANCE (SPECIFIC TO ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS)...........................................................................                                          26

WIDER BANDWIDTH (Q < 3 TYPICALLY).................................                                             27

ATTENUATION OF SOUND WAVES (SPECIFIC TO ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS)...........................................................................                                         28

REQUIRED FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PIEZOELECTRIC SENSOR DEVICES.......................................................................                                                         28

SENSITIVITY RANGE.......................................................................                                     28

FREQUENCY RANGE........................................................................                                   29

ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS.....................................................                              30

TEMPERATURE RANGE..................................................................                                     30

HUMIDITY............................................................................................                                   30

HIGH AMPLITUDE VIBRATION SIGNALS................................                                            30

HAZARDOUS ENVIRONMENTS (GAS, DUST, ETC.)..............                                            30

PIEZO CHARACTERISTICS OF PZT MATERIALS FOR SENSORS                                   31

TABLE 6: COMPARISON OF HARD AND SOFT PZT PROPERTIES                                  31

TABLE 7: PROPERTIES OF SOFT PIEZOELECTRIC CERAMICS  FOR MANUFACTURE OF SENSORS...............................................                                                                              32

PIEZOELECTRIC MATERIALS..................................................................                           34

PREFERRED COMMERCIAL GRADES OF SOFT PIEZOCERAMICS USED FOR MANUFACTURING PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS...                                                            34

TABLE 8: MANUFACTURERS’ PREFERRED GRADES OF SOFT PIEZOELECTRIC MATERIALS FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF SENSORS.........................................................................................                                    35

PIEZOELECTRIC CRYSTALS.........................................................                                     36

FIGURE 2: PIEZO CRYSTAL CUTS FOR SENSOR APPLICATIONS                                 37

ACCELEROMETERS/GYROS..........................................................                                   38

TABLE 9: PARAMETERS USED IN PIEZOCRYSTAL ACCELEROMETERS....................................................................                                       38

QUARTZ CRYSTALS FOR PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS AND TRANSDUCERS.............................................................................                                     40

QUARTZ CRYSTALS FOR PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS AND TRANSDUCERS (CNTD.)............................................................                                                                    41

TABLE 10: KEY MANUFACTURERS OF ARTIFICIAL QUARTZ CRYSTALS FOR PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS.....................                                                                                                       42

PVDF AS AN ALTERNATIVE PIEZOELECTRIC MATERIAL                                               42

PVDF FOR PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS AND ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS.............................................................................                                     46

TABLE 11: LEADING MANUFACTURERS OF PVDF FOR ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS.............................................................................                                     47

TABLE 12: SIZES OF PVDF PIEZOELECTRIC FILMS FOR ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS................................................                                                                 48

PIEZOELECTRIC COMPOSITES FOR ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS FOR MEDICAL IMAGING..........................................................                                                                  48

FIGURE 3: THREE PHASES OF PVDF MATERIAL.................                                         49

TABLE 13: INDIVIDUAL PROPERTIES OF PZT AND PVDF                                            50

TABLE 14: PROPERTIES OF PIEZOELECTRIC COMPOSITES AT DIFFERENT POLING FIELDS...............................................                                                                               50

TRANSDUCERS FOR MEDICAL IMAGING (CNTD.)............................                                                        51

TYPES OF CERAMIC-POLYMER COMPOSITES......................                                      52

Ceramic-polymers with 3-3 connectivity.............................                                                                                                           52

Ceramic-polymers with 1-3 connectivity.............................                                                                                                           52

Ceramic-polymer with 3-0 connectivity...............................                                                                                                            53

Composite with 3-1 and 3-2 connectivity............................                                                                                                           53

Ceramic-polymer with 0-3 connectivity...............................                                                                                                            53

TABLE 15: COMPARISON OF PIEZOELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF CERAMIC COMPOSITES TO PVDF AND STANDARD NAVY GRADE CERAMICS......................................................................................                                  54

TABLE 16: KEY MANUFACTURERS OF CERAMIC-POLYMER COMPOSITES FOR ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS.........                                                                                                       55

 Add 
5. PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS56-82
$945.00
$850.50

TABLE 17: CHARACTERISTICS OF PIEZO SENSORS BY DIFFERENT TECHNOLOGIES..........................................................................                              57

TYPES OF PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS..................................................                58

ACCELEROMETERS/VIBRATION SENSORS............................                              58

TABLE 18: COMPARISON OF IEPE SENSORS USING PIEZOCERAMICS AND A QUARTZ ELEMENT.......................................................                                                            59

CONSTRUCTION FEATURES OF ACCELEROMETERS 61

FIGURE 4: TYPES OF LOW FREQUENCY PIEZOELECTRIC ACCELEROMETERS....................................................................                             62

TYPES OF PIEZOELECTRICACCELERATORS.........................                              64

Low frequency piezoelectric accelerators............................                                                                                             65

TABLE 19: PIEZOELECTRIC VELOCITY TRANSDUCER PERFORMANCE AT DIFFERENT SENSITIVITIES...........                                                                                              66

High frequency piezoelectric accelerators..........................                                                                                             66

Multi-axis piezoelectric accelerators....................................                                                                                              66

High temperature piezoelectric accelerators.....................                                                                                              67

Precision piezoelectric accelerometers.................................                                                                                          67

FIGURE 5: PRECISION CLASS MINIATURE PIEZOELECTRIC ACCELEROMETER......................................................................                           68

Embeddable piezoelectric accelerometers...........................                                                                                        68

FIGURE 6: EMBEDDED FREQUENCY PIEZOELECTRIC ACCELEROMETER......................................................................                          68

Handheld piezoelectric accelerators/vibration meter (handprobes)....................................................................... 69

Hazardous area approved piezoelectric accelerators.......                                                                                          69

MARKET FOR ACCELEROMETERS.........................................................            70

TABLE 20: GLOBAL MARKET FOR PIEZOELECTRIC ACCELEROMETERS BY TYPE, 2015 AND 2020.................                                                                                                       70

PRESSURE SENSORS...................................................................................      70

CONSTRUCTION................................................................................                  71

FIGURE 7: SCHEMATIC VIEW OF PIEZOELECTRIC PRESSURE SENSOR...........................................................................................                     72

SENSITIVITY OF PIEZOELECTRIC PRESSURE SENSORS.                             72

TYPES OF PIEZOELECTRIC PRESSURE SENSORS..............                          73

General purpose piezoelectric pressure sensors................                                                                                   73

High sensitivity piezoelectric pressure sensors.................                                                                                      73

High frequency shockwave/blast/explosion piezoelectric pressure sensors................................................... 73

Ballistics piezoelectric pressure sensors.............................                                                                                    74

Engine combustion piezoelectric pressure sensors...........                                                                                   74

High-temperature and cryogenic piezoelectric pressure sensors                                                                       74

Rocket motor piezoelectric pressure sensors......................                                                                                   75

TABLE 21: GLOBAL MARKET OF PIEZOELECTRIC PRESSURE SENSORS BY TYPE THROUGH 2015-2020...........................                                                                                  77

FORCE SENSORS...........................................................................................    77

PIEZOELECTRIC CRYSTAL FORCE TRANSDUCERS...........                           78

FIGURE 8: PIEZOELECTRIC FORCE SENSORS......................                        78

Multi-component crystal force sensor/transducer.............                                                                                      78

CONSTRUCTION AND DESIGN OF PIEZOELECTRIC FORCE SENSORS............................................................................................................79

Mounting of a load washer.....................................................                                                                                     79

FIGURE 9: PRE-LOADED LOAD WASHER AS A PIEZOELECTRIC FORCE SENSOR............................................................................                                 80

FIGURE 10: CROSS-SECTION OF A TYPICAL FORCE SENSOR....              81

QUANTIFICATION OF FORCE SENSORS..................................                     81

Range...........................................................................................                                                                                82

Temperature..............................................................................                                                                                 82

Sensitivity..................................................................................                                                                                   82

Linearity.....................................................................................                                                                                   82

 Add 
6. PIEZOELECTRIC SENSOR APPLICATION SEGMENTS83-96
$630.00
$567.00

APPLICATIONS OF PIEZOELECTRIC ACCELEROMETERS...........                     83

GENERAL PURPOSE APPLICATIONS........................................                          83

Case study1-bearing monitoring...........................................                                                                                         83

Case study 2-gear subharmonics..........................................                                                                                       84

Case study 3-cooling towers...................................................                                                                                       84

SHOCK AND VIBRATION................................................................                      84

MODEL ANALYSIS SURVEYS........................................................                      85

HIGH TEMPERATURE AND INDUSTRIAL USES...................                              86

MARKET SIZE......................................................................................                 86

TABLE 22: GLOBAL MARKET OF PIEZOELECTRIC ACCELEROMETERS OR VIBRATION SENSORS BY APPLICATION, 2015 AND 2020................................................... 87

APPLICATIONS OF PIEZOELECTRIC PRESSURE SENSORS........                  87

STATIC AND DYNAMIC APPLICATIONS...................................                          87

Case study 1-injection molding of plastic material:.........                                                                                       88

Case study 2-electromechanical nc joining systems:........                                                                                   88

HYDRAULIC AND FUEL SYSTEMS MEASUREMENTS........                            88

BALLISTICS AND BLAST MEASUREMENT.............................                          89

COMBUSTION ENGINE TESTING...............................................                      89

MISCELLANEOUS PRESSURE SENSORS.................................                      90

MARKET SIZE......................................................................................              90

TABLE 23: GLOBAL MARKET FOR PIEZOELECTRIC PRESSURE SENSORS BY APPLICATION, 2015 AND 2020....................                                                                              91

APPLICATIONS OF PIEZOELECTRIC FORCE SENSORS................              91

QUASISTATIC AND DYNAMIC TESTING..................................                       91

Case study 1-automotive testing...........................................                                                                                 91

Case study 2-biomechanics....................................................                                                                               92

Case study 3-weigh-in-motion (wim) equipment..............                                                                                 92

METAL WORKING STUDIES..........................................................                 92

Case study - monitoring for forming/deep-drawing processes...                                                                   93

STRAIN MEASUREMENT................................................................                93

INDUSTRIAL PROCESS CONTROL APPLICATIONS.............                       94

Case study 1 - high-quality welding as a customized industrial  solution..................................................  94

Case study 2-friction welding................................................                                                                                94

Case study 3-wire bonding:....................................................                                                                               95

MISCELLANEOUS.............................................................................              95

MARKET SIZE......................................................................................            95

TABLE 24: GLOBAL MARKET OF PIEZOELECTRIC FORCE SENSORS BY APPLICATION, 2015 AND 2020.........................................                                                                96

 Add 
7. ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS97-161
$2,275.00
$2,047.50

OVERVIEW....................................................................................................... 97

TABLE 25: CATEGORIES OF ULTRASONIC MEASUREMENTS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS..............................................................                                  98

FIGURE 11: ROLE OF MATCHING LAYER IN CONSTRUCTION OF TRANSDUCER.............................................................................                 100

TABLE 26: PERFORMANCE OF VARIOUS MATERIALS USED AS THE FINAL ACOUSTIC IMPEDANCE MATCHING LAYER ON THE PIEZOELECTRIC ELEMENT..................................................                                                    101

ROLE OF THE PIEZOELECTRIC ELEMENT IN ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS......................................................................................     101

ULTRASONIC SENSOR CONSTRUCTION...............................                  102

FIGURE 12: ULTRASONIC PROXIMITY SENSOR COMPONENTS           102

BASIC COMPONENTS....................................................................            102

Transducer/receiver...............................................................                                                                           102

Comparator and detector circuit.........................................                                                                            102

Solid-state output switching device...................................                                                                             102

Sensing.....................................................................................                                                                           103

FIGURE 13: ULTRASONIC SENSING DISTANCE.................                    103

ULTRASONIC FLOW MEASUREMENT TRANSDUCERS...............          104

FIGURE 14: PRINCIPLE AND CONSTRUCTION OF ULTRASONIC FLOW SENSORS.........................................................................                          105

TYPES OF ULTRASONIC FLOW METERS...............................                105

Doppler.....................................................................................                                                                          106

Transit time.............................................................................                                                                          106

SAMPLE SPECIFICATIONS FOR AN ULTRASONIC FLOW TRANSDUCER.............................................................................              107

MARKET SIZE...................................................................................         107

TABLE 27: GLOBAL MARKET OF ULTRASONIC FLOW TRANSDUCERS BY TYPE, 2015 AND 2020.........................................................                                                   108

ULTRASONIC POSITION/DISTANCE/PROXIMITY TRANSDUCERS       108

SAMPLE SPECIFICATIONS FOR AN ULTRASONIC PROXIMITY TRANSDUCER.............................................................................              109

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES...................................                 109

OPERATION AND DESIGN OF ULTRASONIC PROXIMITY  SENSORS..................................................................................................109

FIGURE 15: PRINCIPLE OF ULTRASONIC PROXIMITY        SENSORS............................................................................................110

Two-point ultrasonic proximity switches..........................                                                                             110

FIGURE 16: TWO-POINT ULTRASONIC PROXIMITY SENSORS.           110

RETRO-REFLECTIVE ULTRASONIC SENSORS........                                                                                111

FIGURE 17: PRINCIPLE OF RETRO-REFLECTIVE ULTRASONIC PROXIMITY SENSORS.............................................................                                      111

Through-beam ultrasonic sensor........................................                                                                         111

FIGURE 18: PRINCIPLE OF THROUGH-BEAM ULTRASONIC PROXIMITY SENSORS.............................................................                                    112

MARKET SIZE...................................................................................       113

TABLE 28: GLOBAL MARKET OF ULTRASONIC POSITION, DISTANCE AND PROXIMITY TRANSDUCERS BY TYPES  THROUGH 2015-2020.................................................................................................114

ULTRASONIC LEVEL TRANSDUCERS................................................  114

OPERATING PRINCIPLE...............................................................          115

FIGURE 19: ULTRASONIC LEVEL TRANSDUCERS............                  115

NON-CONTACT ULTRASONIC SENSORS...............................              116

CONTACT ULTRASONIC SENSORS..........................................            116

SAMPLE SPECIFICATIONS FOR AN ULTRASONIC LEVEL TRANSDUCER.............................................................................            117

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF ULTRASONIC LEVEL TRANSDUCERS..........................................................................            117

MARKET SIZE...................................................................................      117

TABLE 29: GLOBAL MARKET FOR ULTRASONIC LEVEL TRANSDUCERS BY TYPE, 2015 AND 2020........................                                                                                 118

PRINCIPLES OF ULTRASONIC TESTING........................................... 118

FIGURE 20: PRINCIPLE OF AN ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCER   USED FOR NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING.....................................                                                           119

MAJOR TYPES OF ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS FOR NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING..............................................                                                   120

FIGURE 21: ULTRASONIC NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING TRANSDUCERS..........................................................................           121

PHASED-ARRAY TRANSDUCERS..............................................          121

SYNTHETIC APERTURE TRANSDUCERS..............................             122

MARKET SIZE...................................................................................     122

TABLE 30: GLOBAL MARKET FOR ACOUSTIC EMISSION  SENSORS AND NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING EQUIPMENT BY TYPE, 2015 AND 2020.......................................................................................                  123

APPLICABLE INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS FOR ULTRASONIC NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING..........................................................                                       123

NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN ULTRASONIC TESTING            TRANSDUCERS..........................................................................124

ACOUSTIC EMISSION TRANSDUCERS USED FOR  NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING.................................................................................................125

TABLE 31: ACOUSTIC EMISSION SENSOR TYPES.............               126

SAMPLE SPECIFICATION FOR AN ACOUSTIC EMISSION TRANSDUCER........................................................................................127

ULTRASONIC MEDICAL IMAGING TRANSDUCERS......................      127

MATERIAL SELECTION CRITERIA FOR THE PIEZO ELEMENT AND THE ROLE OF THE MATCHING LAYER IN MEDICAL ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS..........................................................................            128

MATERIAL SELECTION CRITERIA FOR THE PIEZO ELEMENT AND THE ROLE OF THE MATCHING LAYER IN MEDICAL ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS (CNTD.).............................................        129

BASIC PRINCIPLE OF MEDICAL ULTRASONIC PROBES                   130

FIGURE 22: CONSTRUCTION OF A TYPICAL MEDICAL ULTRASONIC PROBE............................................................................................        130

Function of the backing material.......................................                                                                      130

Function of the acoustic matching layer...........................                                                                     130

Function of the acoustic lens...............................................                                                                    131

TYPES OF ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS FOR MEDICAL USE..      131

Array module...........................................................................                                                                   131

Two-dimensional probe.........................................................                                                                  131

Mechanical three-dimensional probe.................................                                                                  132

TABLE 32: ULTRASONIC MEDICAL TRANSDUCERS/PROBES...      132

REGULATION OF MEDICAL ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS             133

MARKET SIZE...................................................................................    133

FLUID PROPERTY MEASUREMENT....................................................134

TABLE 33: QUARTZ TUNING FORK MEASUREMENT FUNCTIONS IN PROCESS ANALYSIS AND MONITORING........................                                                                135

MARKET SIZE...................................................................................    135

APPLICATIONS OF ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS........................  136

ULTRASONIC FLOW SENSORS..................................................       136

Pharmaceuticals industry....................................................                                                                  137

Food and beverage industry................................................                                                                  137

Bottling plants........................................................................                                                                   137

Air bubble detection...............................................................                                                                   137

FIGURE 23: AIR BUBBLE DETECTION BY ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS..........................................................................         138

Other industries.....................................................................                                                                  139

MARKET SIZE...................................................................................    139

TABLE 34: GLOBAL MARKET FOR ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS/FLOW SENSORS BY APPLICATION/INDUSTRY, 2015 AND 2020.........................................140

APPLICATIONS OF ULTRASONIC POSITION, DISTANCE AND PROXIMITY SENSORS AND TRANSDUCERS.......................................................                            140

GENERAL ENGINEERING INDUSTRY....................................            140

TABLE 35: SAMPLE APPLICATION OF ULTRASONIC PROXIMITY SENSORS IN SEVERAL INDUSTRIES................................                                                        141

FACTORY AUTOMATION AND MATERIAL HANDLING     LOGISTICS PROCESSES.................................................................................      142

ROBOTICS..........................................................................................142

PACKAGING INDUSTRY, FOOD AND BEVERAGE INDUSTRY, BOTTLING PLANTS..................................................................                             142

PARKING SENSORS........................................................................  143

ULTRASONIC SYSTEMS IN VEHICLES...................................         143

ADDITIONAL APPLICATIONS OF ULTRASONIC PROXIMITY TRANSDUCERS..........................................................................       144

MARKET SIZE................................................................................... 144

TABLE 36: GLOBAL MARKET FOR ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS/PROXIMITY SENSORS BY APPLICATION/ INDUSTRY, 2015 AND 2020......................................145

APPLICATIONS OF ULTRASONIC LEVEL SENSORS..................... 146

FLUID INDUSTRY HANDLING OF LIQUIDS, FUELS AND       OTHER FLUIDS..........................................................................................      147

PUBLIC HEALTH ENGINEERING AND WASTEWATER       UTILITIES......................................................................................147

FIGURE 24: PRINCIPLE OF ULTRASONIC LIQUID TANK LEVEL MONITORING..............................................................................      148

MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS...........................................      148

MARKET SIZE...................................................................................149

TABLE 37: GLOBAL MARKET FOR ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCER LIQUID TANK LEVEL MONITORING BY APPLICATION/ INDUSTRY, 2015 AND 2020......150

APPLICATIONS OF ACOUSTIC EMISSION TRANSDUCERS....... 150

TABLE 38: EXAMPLES OF APPLICATIONS OF ACOUSTIC EMISSION TRANSDUCERS IN NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING.......                                                 151

TABLE 38 (CNTD.)...................................................................................                152

TABLE 38 (CNTD.)...................................................................................                153

NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING....................................................  153

TABLE 39: EXAMPLES OF USAGE OF ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS IN NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING........................................                                                 154

MARKET SIZE.................................................................................155

APPLICATIONS OF MEDICAL TRANSDUCERS............................156

HIGH-INTENSITY THERAPEUTIC ULTRASOUND (HIFU)            156

LOW-INTENSITY THERAPEUTIC ULTRASOUND (LIFU).            157

OTHER USES.................................................................................158

MARKET SIZE.................................................................................158

TABLE 40: GLOBAL MARKET FOR ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCER/MEDICAL IMAGING END USAGE, 2015 AND       2020...........................................................159

APPLICATIONS OF ULTRASONIC TUNING FORK FLUID        PROPERTY SENSORS (FPS).......................................................................................         159

USAGE FOR ENGINE OILS AND FUELS.................................     160

USAGE IN HYDRAULIC FLUIDS................................................    160

OTHER SPECIAL MEASUREMENTS.........................................   160

MARKET SIZE................................................................................161

TABLE 41: GLOBAL MARKET FOR ULTRASONIC FLUID PROPERTIES SENSORS (FPS) BY APPLICATION AREA, 2015       AND 2020                                    161

 Add 
8. INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND GLOBAL MARKETS162-177
$960.00
$864.00

INDUSTRY STRUCTURE........................................................................... 162

TABLE 42: TOP SUPPLIERS OF PIEZOELECTRIC MATERIAL FOR SENSORS AND TRANSDUCERS, PRODUCT LINE REFERENCE                                      164

COMPETITION............................................................................................164

COMPETITIVE STRATEGIES - PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS                  166

TABLE 43: COMPETING TECHNOLOGIES OF PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS......................................................................................            166

COMPETITIVE STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGIES.........                    167

TABLE 44: MAJOR COMPETING TECHNOLOGIES FOR ULTRASONIC SENSORS IN 2015......................................................................                                    168

MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS AND DIVESTITURES...........................     169

TABLE 45: ACQUISITION DEALS AMONG MANUFACTURERS OF PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS AND ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS FROM 2010 TO 2015...................................................................                                      169

MARKET SIZE.........................................................................................171

TABLE 46: GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS AND ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS

COMBINED (NON-MILITARY), 2015 AND 2020...............                      171

PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS.................................................................172

TABLE 47: GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS BY PRODUCT TYPE, 2015 AND         2020.................................................................................................      172

FIGURE 25: MARKET SHARE FOR PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS BY TYPE FOR 2015 AND 2020.......................................................                                                173

ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS............................................................173

TABLE 48: GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS BY PRODUCT TYPE, 2015 AND    2020................................................................................................. 174

FIGURE 26: MARKET SHARE FOR ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS BY TYPE, 2015 AND 2020...............................................................                                      175

MARKET SEGMENTATION BY REGION...........................................176

TABLE 49: GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS AND ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS COMBINED

BY REGION, 2015 AND 2020..........................                                  176

FIGURE 27: REGIONAL PERCENTAGES OF MARKET SHARE FOR PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS AND ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS COMBINED, 2015 AND 2020...................................................                                                177

 Add 
9. NEW DEVELOPMENTS178-183
$240.00
$216.00

PIEZOELECTRIC SENSOR ARRAYS USED IN STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING..........................................................................................      178

TABLE 50: COMPONENTS OF STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING ARCHITECTURE........................................................................                   179

TACTILE SENSORS..................................................................................... 180

TABLE 51: EXAMPLES OF TACTILE SENSORS....................                      181

PIEZOELECTRIC WAFER ACTIVE SENSORS (PWAS)....................          182

PIEZOELECTRIC MICROMACHINED ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS (PMUT).......................................................................................................   182

WIRELESS VIBRATION SENSORS........................................................     183

 Add 
10. APPENDIX I COMPANIES MANUFACTURING PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS AND ULTRASONIC TRASDUCERS184-197
$420.00
$378.00

ANNON PIEZO TECHNOLOGY CO., LTD............................................ 184

APC INTERNATIONAL, LTD...................................................................184

AVL LIST GMBH......................................................................................185

 

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SPM INSTRUMENTS...............................................................................196

TOSHIBA POWER SYSTEMS INSPECTION SERVICES CO., LTD.      197

WILXION RESEARCH............................................................................. 197

 Add 
11. APPENDIX II RAW MATERIAL SUPPLIERS TO PRODUCERS OF PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS AND ULTRASONIC TRASDUCERS198-210
$390.00
$351.00

AIRMAR TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION............................................          198

ANNON TECHNOLOGY CO. LTD...........................................................         198

APC INTERNATIONAL, LTD....................................................................         198

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TRS TECHNOLOGIES INC........................................................................      210

WILLOW TECHNOLOGIES LTD.............................................................         210

ZONARE MEDICAL SYSTEMS.................................................................      210

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