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ULTRACAPACITORS FOR STATIONARY, INDUSTRIAL, CONSUMER AND TRANSPORT ENERGY STORAGE -- A GLOBAL INDUSTRY AND MARKET ANALYSIS
(View Introduction/Table Of Contents)
Publish Date: Jun 2013,   Pages: 189,   Report Code: ET-115
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1. INTRODUCTIONXX - XXVI
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INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................. XX

STUDY GOAL AND OBJECTIVES ..................................................................xxi

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY .............................................................xxi

CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE STUDY ............................................................. xxii

SCOPE AND FORMAT ..................................................................................... xxiii

METHODOLOGY ............................................................................................... xxiii

INFORMATION SOURCES............................................................................. xxiv

WHOM THE STUDY CATERS TO ..................................................................xxv

AUTHOR’S CREDENTIALS............................................................................ xxvi

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2. EXECUTIVE SUMMARYXXVII - XXXII
$325.00
$227.50

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ............................................................................................. xxviii

SUMMARY TABLE - GLOBAL MARKET FOR ULTRACAPACITORS BY APPLICATION, 2013 AND 2018 ................... XXXI

SUMMARY FIGURE - ILLUSTRATION OF GLOBAL MARKET FOR ULTRACAPACITORS, BY APPLICATION, 2013 AND 2018....................................................................................................................... XXXII

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3. INDUSTRY OVERVIEW1 - 46
$2,300.00
$1,610.00

INDUSTRY OVERVIEW .................................................................................................... 1

BACKGROUND AND DEVELOPMENT OF ULTRACAPACITORS ....................................................................................... 4

TYPES AND APPLICATIONS .............................................................................. 7

TABLE 1 - BROAD APPLICATION AREAS AND POSSIBLE ENERGY/POWER FUNCTIONS OF ULTRACAPACITORS ...................... 10

TABLE 2 - BROAD APPLICATION AREAS AND POPULARLY USED ULTRACAPACITORS .............................................................................. 11

MARKET DOMAINS ............................................................................................. 12

TABLE 3 - APPLICATIONS OF ULTRACAPACITORS BY MARKET DOMAIN ............................................................................................... 12

STATIONARY ENERGY STORAGE ....................................................................... 13

Stationary Substation Battery Replacement ............................................... 13

Substation Battery Replacement for Long Duration Outages ..................................................................................... 15

Mitigating Electric Service Voltage Fluctuations Produced by Pulsing Customer Loads ........................................ 16

Distributed Generation ................................................................................... 16

Wind Energy Storage ....................................................................................... 17

Solar Power ........................................................................................................ 17

INDUSTRIAL ENERGY STORAGE ........................................................................ 18

Uninterrupted Power Supply (UPS)............................................................. 18

OEM Equipment ............................................................................................... 19

OEM Equipment Retrofits.............................................................................. 19

Telecommunication .......................................................................................... 19

Electric Fork Trucks ........................................................................................ 20

TABLE 4 - BATTERY COST V/S ULTRACAPACITOR COST COMPARISON IN CLASS-1 LIFT TRUCKS................................................... 21

Rubber-Tire Gantry Cranes (RTGCs) .......................................................... 21

FIGURE 1 - TYPICAL LOAD CYCLE OF RUBBER-TIRED

GANTRY CRANE ......................................................................................................... 22

Power Tools ........................................................................................................ 23

CONSUMER ELECTRONICS ENERGY STORAGE .......................................... 23

Computer Solid State Drives (SSDs)............................................................ 25

Mobile Phone Camera Flash and Power Management ............................ 26

Automotive Meter Reading............................................................................. 27

Other Consumer Applications ....................................................................... 28

Toys................................................................................................................... 28

Home Appliances (Small UPS) .......................................................................... 28

Office Equipment ............................................................................................... 29

Energy Harvesting for Wireless Sensor Networking (WSN) .................. 29

FIGURE 2 -APPLICATION OF ULTRACAPACITORS IN

VIBRATIONAL ENERGY HARVESTING WIRELESS SENSORS NETWORK MODULE ........................................................................................... 31

TRANSPORT ENERGY STORAGE ....................................................... 32

Distributed Power............................................................................................. 32

Power Actuators ................................................................................................ 33

MARKET SEGMENTS.............................................................................. 34

Storage of Regenerated Braking Energy in HEVs, PHEVs, EVs ................................................................................................................. 34

Auto Engine Cranking Engines.........................................................69

Power Backup for Electromechanical Brakes of Hybrid Passenger Cars:........................................................................................... 36

Capture of Regenerated Braking Energy in Heavy Duty Trucks, Transit Buses and Delivery Vans: ........................................... 37

Capture of Regenerated Braking Energy in Electric Trains/Trams ............................................................................................... 38

Boardnet Stabilization, 42V Distributed Pwer Modules in High

End Cars....................................................................................72

Integrated Starting Alternators...............................................74

Integration With Fuel Cells.......................................................74

Integration with Battery-Hybrid Battery/Ultracapacitor Combination:......................................... 41

FIGURE 3 -FUNCTIONING OF AN ULTRACAPACITOR USED WITH A BATTERY ................................................................. 42

FIGURE 4 - FUNCTIONING OF AN ULTRACAPACITOR, BATTERY AND BUCK-BOOST CONVERTER IN REGENERATING BRAKING ENERGY IN TRANSPORT SYSTEMS ........................................... 43

TABLE 5 - TARGET PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS OF ULTRACAPACITORS – DOE GUIDELINES........................................................................................ 45

Hybrid Battery/Ultracap Combination with Electric Steering, Electromechanical Braking, and LED Front Lighting: .......................................................................... 45

FIGURE 5 - ILLUSTRATION OF ULTRACAPACITORS USED IN A 42V SYSTEM TO MEET SPECIFICATIONS IN PASSENGER CARS.................................. 46

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4. LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO ULTRACAPACITORS47 - 52
$300.00
$210.00

LITHIUM BATTERIES AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO ULTRACAPACITORS - COST AND BUSINESS ISSUES ................................. 47

Cost Issues................................................................................................................ 47

COST OF MATERIALS............................................................................. 48

TABLE 6 - TYPICAL PRICE STRUCTURE OF LARGE-FORMAT ULTRACAPACITORS AND UNIT CELL.................... 49

COST COMPARISON................................................................................ 50

CHALLENGE FROM LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES ...................................... 51

TABLE 7-COMPARISON OF ULTRACAPACITORS AND LI-ION BATTERIES ............................................................................ 51

CASE STUDY –TAVRIMA CANADA INC. .......................................... 52

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5. MARKET SIZE AND SHARE53 - 72
$1,200.00
$840.00

MARKET SIZE AND SHARE .......................................................................................... 53

TABLE 8 SUMMARY OF GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR ULTRACAPACITORS BY APPLICATION, 2013 AND 2018 ............................................... 56

FIGURE 6- SUMMARY OF GLOBAL MARKET FOR ULTRACAPACITORS BY APPLICATION, 2013 AND 2018.......................................................................................................... 57

STATIONARY ENERGY STORAGE ................................................................. 58

TABLE 9 -GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR ULTRACAPACITORS, BY CATEGORY OF STATIONARY APPLICATIONS ................................................ 58

INDUSTRIAL ENERGY STORAGE .................................................................. 59

TABLE 10 - GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR ULTRACAPACITORS BY CATEGORY OF INDUSTRIAL ENERGY STORAGE APPLICATIONS ................................................................................... 60

CONSUMER ELECTRONICS ENERGY STORAGE .................................... 60

TABLE 11 - GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR ULTRACAPACITORS BY APPLICATION IN CONSUMER ELECTRONICS....................... 61

TRANSPORT ENERGY STORAGE ................................................................... 61

TABLE 12 - GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR ULTRACAPACITORS BY APPLICATION IN TRANSPORT ENERGY STORAGE ............. 62

KEY POINTS IN TRANSPORT ENERGY STORAGE ...................... 63

AREAS FOR POTENTIAL GROWTH IN TRANSPORT ENERGY STORAGE............................................................................ 63

Hybrid Transit Buses, Postal Vans, Urban Shuttles Delivery Vans and Heavy Hybrid Vehicles ........................................................... 63

Hybrid cars ......................................................................................................... 65

Integrated Starting Alternators .................................................................... 65

MARKET SIZE BY REGION ............................................................................... 65

TABLE 13 - GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR ULTRACAPACITORS BY REGION, 2013 AND 2018 ..................................................................................... 66

FIGURE 7 - REGIONAL PERCENTAGES OF MARKET SHARE FOR ULTRACAPACITORS, 2013 AND 2018 ................ 67

MARKET SIZE BY ULTRACAPACITOR FORM FACTOR ......................... 67

TABLE 14 - GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR ULTRACAPACITORS BY SIZE, 2013 AND 2018 ............................................................................................... 68

FIGURE 8 - GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR ULTRACAPACITORS BY SIZE, 2013 AND 2018 ............................................................................................... 69

MARKET SIZE BY TECHNOLOGY .................................................................. 70

TABLE 15 - GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR ULTRACAPACITORS BY TECHNOLOGY, 2013 AND 2018 ..................................................... 71

FIGURE 9 - GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR ULTRACAPACITORS BY TECHNOLOGY, 2013 AND 2018 ..................................................... 72

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6. ULTRACAPACITOR TECHNOLOGIES AND PRODUCTS73 - 105
$1,320.00
$924.00

ULTRACAPACITOR TECHNOLOGIES AND PRODUCTS .................................... 73

DEFINITIONS ........................................................................................................ 73

BASIC ASPECTS OF ULTRACAPACITOR TECHNOLOGY...................... 76

ULTRACAPACITORS VS. BATTERIES............................................... 77

Ultracapacitors vs. Lithium-Ion Batteries.................................................. 79

ULTRACAPACITORS VS. CAPACITORS ........................................... 80

TABLE 16 - COMPARISON OF ULTRACAPACITOR AND BATTERY CHARACTERISTICS ........................................... 81

FIGURE 10 - RAGONE PLOTS FOR AN ARRAY OF ENERGY STORAGE AND ENERGY CONVERSION DEVICES ................................................................................................ 81

ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF ULTRACAPACITORS .............. 82

WORKING OF A TYPICAL SYMMETRIC EDLC (PURE EDLC USING AQUEOUS ELECTRIC DOUBLE-LAYER CAPACITOR) ..................................................................................................... 82

CURRENT MATERIALS FOR ULTRACAPACITORS.................................. 83

TABLE 17 - CURRENT MATERIALS USED IN ELECTRIC DOUBLE-LAYER CAPACITORS (EDLCS) BY TECHNOLOGY, 2013 ................................................................... 84

EMERGING MATERIALS: CARBON NANOTUBE ULTRACAPACITORS ..................................................................................... 90

FIGURE 11- EMERGING MATERIALS STRATEGIES AIMED

AT INCREASING CAPACITANCE AND VOLTAGE IN

ULTRACAPACITORS ............................................................................... 91

TABLE 18 - EMERGING MATERIALS USED IN EDLCS .............. 92

SIZING OF ULTRACAPACITORS..................................................................... 95

FIGURE 12 - INTERNAL CONSTRUCTION OF CYLINDRICAL ULTRACAPACITOR SINGLE CELLS ............. 96

FIGURE 13 - ELECTRODE, SEPARATOR AND ELECTROLYTE INTERACTION IN A CYLINDRICAL ULTRACAPACITOR ............................................. 97

SIZING ACCORDING TO POWER........................................................ 97

Low Voltage (Less than 10V) ......................................................................... 97

FIGURE 14 - DIFFERENT FORM FACTORS OF COMMERCIAL ULTRACAPACITORS........................................... 98

High Voltage (More than 10V)....................................................................... 98

Very Low Voltage2.7 volt ................................................................................ 99

SIZING ACCORDING TO SHAPES ...................................................... 99

Compact Cells .................................................................................................... 99

TABLE 19 - TYPICAL SIZES OF COMPACT

ULTRACAPACITOR CELLS .................................................................. 99

Coin Type ..........................................................................................................100

TABLE 20 - TYPICAL SIZES OF COIN ULTRACAPACITOR CELLS ...........................................................100

Large-Size Module ..........................................................................................100

ULTRACAPACITORS IN SERIES.......................................................100

FIGURE 15 - ULTRACAPACITOR CELLS IN SERIES TO FORM

A MODULE...............................................................................................101

Modular Configurations ................................................................................102

TABLE 21 - TYPICAL SIZES OF LARGE-SIZE MODULES OF ULTRACAPACITOR CELLS..............................103

QUALIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR ULTRACAPACITORS ...................................................................................104

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7. INDUSTRY STRUCTURE106 - 119
$700.00
$490.00

INDUSTRY STRUCTURE .............................................................................................106

TABLE 22 - ULTRACAPACITOR PRODUCT LINE REFERENCE, 2013 ...........................................................................108

TABLE 23 - ULTRACAPACITORS-RELATED PARTS SUPPLIERS, MANUFACTURERS, SYSTEM INTEGRATORS PRODUCT LINE REFERENCE......................109

RAW MATERIAL SUPPLIERS.........................................................................111

MARKET DYNAMICS ........................................................................................112

MARKET DYNAMICS IN THE TRANSPORT SEGMENT ...........113

Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) ...........................................113

Suppliers ...........................................................................................................113

Small medium enterprises............................................................................114

COMPETITION AND MARKET TRENDS ....................................................115

ALLIANCES ..........................................................................................................116

TABLE 24 - ACQUISITIONS AND MERGERS OF COMPANIES MANUFACTURING ULTRACAPACITORS, 2009 TO JANUARY 2013 ......................117

RANKING OF MARKET PLAYERS ................................................................119

TABLE 25 TOP MANUFACTURERS OF ULTRACAPACITORS FOR TRANSPORT ENERGY STORAGE IN 2013.............................................................................119

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8. PATENTS AND PATENT ANALYSIS120 - 157
$1,330.00
$931.00

PATENTS AND PATENT ANALYSIS ........................................................................120

LIST OF PATENTS..............................................................................................120

ELECTRODE FOR ENERGY STORAGE DEVICE WITH MICROPOROUS AND MESOPOROUS ACTIVATED CARBON PARTICLES ......................................................................120

METHOD OF PROCESSING HIGH VOLTAGE CAPACITORS......................................................................................120

ENERGY STORAGE DEVICE ..............................................................121

ENERGY STORAGE DEVICE HAVING A COLLECTOR PLATE ...................................................................................................121

METHOD OF PRODUCING NANO-SCALED GRAPHENE AND INORGANIC PLATELETS AND THEIR NANOCOMPOSITES ..........................................................122

SPACER-MODIFIED NANO GRAPHENE ELECTRODES FOR SUPERCAPACITORS ................................122

METHOD OF PRODUCING NANO-SCALED INORGANIC

PLATELETS ..............................................................................................123

PRODUCTION OF CHEMICALLY FUNCTIONALIZED NANO GRAPHENE MATERIALS .................................................123

MASS PRODUCTION OF PRISTINE NANO GRAPHENE MATERIALS ...............................................................123

PROCESS FOR PRODUCING DISPERSIBLE AND CONDUCTIVE NANO GRAPHENE PLATELETS FROM NON-OXIDIZED GRAPHITIC MATERIALS.................124

LOW-TEMPERATURE METHOD OF PRODUCING NANO-SCALED GRAPHENE PLATELETS AND THEIR NANOCOMPOSITES ..........................................................124

PROCESS FOR PRODUCING DISPERSIBLE NANO GRAPHENE PLATELETS FROM OXIDIZED GRAPHITE...........................................................................................125

METHOD OF CHARGING DOUBLE ELECTRIC LAYER ELECTROCHEMICAL CAPACITORS .........................................125

MULTI ELECTRODE SERIES CONNECTED ARRANGEMENT SUPERCAPACITOR .......................................126

CONDUCTIVE ELECTRODE USING CONDUCTING METAL OXIDE FILM WITH NETWORK STRUCTURE OF NANOGRAINS AND NANOPARTICLES, PREPARATION METHOD THEREOF AND SUPERCAPACITOR USING THE SAME.....................................................................................................126

DRY PARTICLE BASED ENERGY STORAGE DEVICE PRODUCT ............................................................................................126

METHOD OF MANUFACTURING AN ELECTRODE OR CAPACITOR PRODUCT ..................................................................127

ELECTRICAL ENERGY STORAGE DEVICES WITH SEPARATOR BETWEEN ELECTRODES AND METHODS FOR FABRICATING THE DEVICES .....................127

METHOD OF MANUFACTURING AN ELECTRODE PRODUCT ............................................................................................128

CAPACITOR START-UP APPARATUS AND METHOD WITH FAIL-SAFE SHORT CIRCUIT PROTECTION ..............128

GRAPHITE-CARBON COMPOSITE ELECTRODE FOR SUPERCAPACITORS .......................................................................128

METHOD OF PRODUCING NANO-SCALED GRAPHENE AND INORGANIC PLATELETS AND THEIR NANOCOMPOSITES ..........................................................129

PROCESS FOR PRODUCING NANO-SCALED GRAPHENE PLATELET NANOCOMPOSITE ELECTRODES FOR SUPERCAPACITORS ................................129

ELECTRODE FOR USE WITH DOUBLE ELECTRIC LAYER ELECTROCHEMICAL CAPACITORS HAVING HIGH SPECIFIC PARAMETERS ................................130

POWER SUPPLY THAT USES A SUPERCAPACITIVE DEVICE ................................................................................................130

ELECTRIC ENERGY STORAGE DEVICE........................................131

THERMAL INTERCONNECTS FOR COUPLING ENERGY STORAGE DEVICES......................................................131

METHOD FOR FABRICATING SELF-ALIGNING ELECTRODE.......................................................................................131

MULTI ELECTRODE SERIES CONNECTED ARRANGEMENT SUPERCAPACITOR .......................................132

METHOD OF PRODUCING EXFOLIATED GRAPHITE, FLEXIBLE GRAPHITE, AND NANO-SCALED GRAPHENE PLATELETS ...............................................................132

ACTIVE VOLTAGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR ENERGY STORAGE DEVICE ........................................................132

ULTRACAPACITOR ELECTRODE WITH CONTROLLED SULFUR CONTENT ...........................................133

METHOD OF MANUFACTURING A CURRENT COLLECTOR FOR A DOUBLE ELECTRIC LAYER CAPACITOR ........................................................................................133

DRY PARTICLE BASED ENERGY STORAGE DEVICE PRODUCT ............................................................................................134

PARTICLE BASED ELECTRODES AND METHODS OF MAKING

THE SAME.................................................................................................134

NANO-SCALED GRAPHENE PLATELETS WITH A HIGH

LENGTH-TO-WIDTH ASPECT RATIO.............................................134

TERMINAL CONNECTOR ....................................................................135

MASS PRODUCTION OF NANO-SCALED PLATELETS AND

PRODUCTS ...............................................................................................135

CONTINIOUS PRODUCTION OF EXFOLIATED GRAPHITE COMPOSITE COMPOSITIONS AND FLOW FIELD PLATES.....................................................................135

NANO-SCALED GRAPHENE PLATE-REINFORCED COMPOSITE MATERIALS AND METHOD OF PRODUCING THE SAME ...............................................................136

NANO-SCALED GRAPHENE PLATE NANOCOMPOSITES FOR SUPERCAPACITOR ELECTRODES ....................................................................................136

METHOD OF MAKING AND ARTICLE OF MANUFACTURE FOR AN ULTRACAPACITOR ELECTRODE APPARATUS ............................................................137

HIGHLY CONDUCTIVE NANO-SCALED GRAPHENE PLATE NANOCOMPOSITES .........................................................137

ENERGY STORAGE DEVICE ..............................................................138

ENERGY STORAGE DEVICE HAVING A SEPARATOR BLOCKING PARASITIC IONS.......................................................138

THERMAL INTERCONNECTION FOR CAPACITOR SYSTEMS .............................................................................................138

SELF ALIGNING ELECTRODE ..........................................................139

COUPLING OF CELL TO HOUSING.................................................139

WET ELECTROLYTIC CAPACITOR..................................................139

POWER SUPPLY .....................................................................................140

ELECTRODE FOR ELECTRIC DOUBLE LAYER CAPACITOR (EDLC), MANUFACTURING METHOD, EDKLC AND

CONDUCTIVE ADHESIVE..................................................................140

CURRENT COLLECTOR FOR A DOUBLE ELECTRIC LAYER

CAPACITOR ..............................................................................................141

ELECTRODE AND CURRENT COLLECTOR FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL CAPACITOR ............................................141

WET ELECTROLYTIC CAPACITORS ...............................................142

METHOD OF MAKING, APPARATUS, AND ARTICLE OF MANUFACTURING FOR AN ELECTRODE TERMINATION CONTACT INTERFACE...................................142

ELECTRIC DOUBLE LAYER CAPACITOR, CONTROL METHOD THEREOF, AND ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM USING THE SAME .........................................................142

PROCESS OF PRODUCING ACTIVATED CARBON FOR ELECTRODE OF ELECTRIC DOUBLE LAYER CAPACITOR ........................................................................................143

METHOD OF MAKING A MULTI-ELECTRODE DOUBLE LAYER CAPACITOR HAVING HERMETIC ELECTROLYTE SEAL .....................................................................143

ELECTRIC DOUBLE LAYER CAPACITOR UTILIZING A MULTI-LAYER ELECTRODE STRUCTURE AND METHOD FOR MANUFACTURING THE SAME .....................143

ELECTRIC DOUBLE LAYER CAPACITOR AND ELECTROLYTIC SOLUTION THEREFOR ................................144

ULTRACAPACITOR MODULE ASSEMBLY DESIGN ..................144

ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM .............................................................144

DENSIFICATION OF COMPRESSIBLE LAYERS DURING ELECTRODE LAMINATION .......................................145

CHARGE STORAGE DEVICE ..............................................................145

COMPOSITION FOR POLYELECTROLYTES, POLYELECTROLYTES, EDLC AND NONAQUEOUS ELECTROLYTE SECONDARY CELLS .......................................146

ELECTRIC DOUBLE-LAYER CAPACITOR .....................................146

ELECTRIC DOUBLE LAYER CAPACITOR .....................................147

PRETREATED POROUS ELECTRODE ............................................147

ELECTRIC DOUBLE LAYER CAPACITOR .....................................148

ELECTROLYTE FOR AN ENERGY STORAGE DEVICE .............148

PATENT ANALYSIS ...........................................................................................148

TABLE 26 - NUMBER OF US PATENTS GRANTED TO COMPANIES IN THE ULTRACAPACITOR (EDLC) DESIGN CATEGORY FROM 2008 THROUGH DECEMBER 2012 ..............................................................................150

FIGURE 16 - NUMBER OF US PATENTS GRANTED TO TOP COMPANIES IN THE ULTRACAPACITOR (EDLC) DESIGN CATEGORY FROM 2008 THROUGH DECEMBER 2012........................................................151

INTERNATIONAL OVERVIEW OF U.S. PATENT ACTIVITY

IN ULTRACAPACITORS ...................................................................................151

TABLE 27 - NUMBER OF US PATENTS GRANTED FOR ULTRACAPACITORS BY ASSIGNED COUNTRY/REGION FROM JANUARY 2008 THROUGH DECEMBER 2012........................................................152

METHOD FOR PRODUCING ELECTRODE PLATE GROUP UNIT FOR LITHIUM-ION CAPACITOR, AND LITHIUM-ION CAPACITOR ................................................153

CONDUCTIVE GRAPHENE POLYMER BINDER FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL CELL ELECTRODES ............................153

MASS PRODUCTION OF PRISTINE NANO GRAPHENE MATERIALS ...............................................................153

MESOPOROUS METAL OXIDE GRAPHENE NANOCOMPOSITE ...........................................................................154

GRAPHENE/RU NANO-COMPOSITE MATERIAL FOR SUPERCAPACITOR AND PREPARATION METHOD THEREOF ............................................................................................154

ULTRACAPACITORS AND METHODS OF MAKING AND USING ........................................................................................155

METHOD FOR PREPARING GRAPHENE-BASED FLEXIBLE SUPER CAPACITOR AND ELECTRODE MATERIAL THEREOF .....................................................................155

ELECTRODE MATERIAL AND CAPACITOR .................................156

ELECTRIC DOUBLE-LAYER CAPACITOR .....................................156

GRAPHENE/RU NANO-COMPOSITE MATERIAL FOR SUPERCAPACITOR AND PREPARATION METHOD THEREOF ............................................................................................156

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9. COMPANY PROFILES158 - 189
$1,280.00
$896.00

COMPANY PROFILES ...................................................................................................158

ADA TECHNOLOGIES, INC. ...........................................................................158

ADVANCED CAPACITOR TECHNOLOGIES, INC. (ACT JAPAN) .............................................................................................................158

VINA TECHNOLOGY CO., LTD./VINATECH KOREA .............................183

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WIMA ......................................................................................................................184

YUNASKO LTD. ...................................................................................................184

START MATERIAL SUPPLIERS.................................................................................185

ANGSTRON MATERIALS INC. .......................................................................185

GRAPHENE ENERGY INC...............................................................................185

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XG SCIENCES ......................................................................................................188

Y-CARBON, INC. .................................................................................................189

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