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ELECTRO-ACTIVE POLYMER ACTUATORS AND SENSORS - TYPES, APPLICATIONS, NEW DEVELOPMENTS, INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND GLOBAL MARKETS
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Publish Date: Mar 2013,   Pages: 129,   Report Code: ET-116
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1. INTRODUCTIONI - VI
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INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................... I
STUDY GOAL AND OBJECTIVES ........................................................................ II
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY .................................................................. III
CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE STUDY ..................................................................... IV
SCOPE AND FORMAT ........................................................................................... IV
METHODOLOGY ...................................................................................................... V
INFORMATION SOURCES ..................................................................................... V
WHOM THE STUDY CATERS TO ........................................................................ VI
AUTHOR’S CREDENTIALS .................................................................................. VI
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2. EXECUTIVE SUMMARYVIII - XII
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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ....................................................................................... VIII
SUMMARY TABLE A -GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE
SHARE FOR ELECTRO-ACTIVE POLYMER ACTUATORS AND
SENSORS BY APPLICATION, 2012 AND 2017 .............................................. X
SUMMARY FIGURE A - GLOBAL MARKET
SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR ELECTRO-ACTIVE
POLYMER ACTUATORS AND SENSORS BY
APPLICATION, 2012 AND 2017 ..................................................................... XI
SUMMARY TABLE B - NORTH AMERICAN AND
GLOBAL MARKET FOR ELECTRO-ACTIVE POLYMER
ACTUATORS AND SENSORS, 2012 AND 2017 .......................................... XII
SUMMARY FIGURE B - NORTH AMERICAN AND
GLOBAL MARKET FOR ELECTRO-ACTIVE POLYMER
ACTUATORS AND SENSORS, 2012 AND 2017 .......................................... XII
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3. INDUSTRY OVERVIEW1 - 47
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INDUSTRY OVERVIEW ............................................................................................. 1
EAP TECHNOLOGY AND TYPES .......................................................................... 1
IONIC EAPS ...................................................................................................... 1
FIELD-ACTIVATED OR ELECTRONIC EAPS ............................................. 2
Dielectric Polymers .................................................................................... 3
Dielectric Polymers (Continued) ................................................................ 4
Phase Transition Polymers ........................................................................ 5
TABLE 1 - SUMMARY OF THE ADVANTAGES AND
DISADVANTAGES OF THE TWO BASIC EAP GROUPS ............................ 6
DEFINITIONS ......................................................................................................... 6
TABLE 2-DEFINITIONS OF TECHNICAL TERMS
USED FOR ELECTRO-ACTIVE POLYMER
ACTUATORS ................................................................................................... 7
EAP MATERIALS FOR ACTUATOR APPLICATIONS ........................................ 8
EAP ACTUATOR APPLICATIONS ........................................................................ 9
DETAILED APPLICATIONS ....................................................................... 10
DETAILED APPLICATIONS (CONTINUED) ............................................ 11
DETAILED APPLICATIONS (CONTINUED) ........................................... 12
MARKET ACCORDING TO APPLICATIONS ................................................... 13
TABLE 3 - GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR
ELECTRO-ACTIVE POLYMER ACTUATORS AND SENSORS
2012 AND 2017 .............................................................................................. 14
FIGURE 1- GLOBAL MARKET FOR EAP ACTUATORS
AND SENSORS BY APPLICATION IN 2012 AND 2017 ........................... 15
MEDICAL APPLICATIONS ......................................................................... 16
Micro-pumps ............................................................................................. 16
Micro-pumps(Continued)........................................................................................17
Active Catheters ....................................................................................... 18
Active Catheters (Continued) .................................................................. 19
Active Catheters (Continued) .................................................................. 20
FIGURE 2 - APPLICATION OF AN EAP CATHETER .............................. 21
Enabling new functionality for medical devices ..................................... 22
Enabling new functionality for medical devices (Continued) ................ 23
Eye focus correction .................................................................................. 24
FIGURE 3 -ILLUSTRATION OF EYELID SLING
ATTACHED TO EAP ARTIFICIAL MUSCLE DEVICE25
Disposable Infusion Pumps ...................................................................... 26
FIGURE 4 - APPLICATION OF ELECTROACTIVE
POLYMER IN A DIAPHRAGM PUMP ....................................................... 27
Medical Markets ....................................................................................... 28
TABLE 4 - FORECAST OF ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER USE IN
MICRO-PUMPS, ACTIVE CATHETERS, MRI EQUIPMENT, EYE
FOCUS CORRECTION AND DISPOSABLE INFUSION PUMPS
2012 - 2017.....................................................................................................29
ROBOTICS EMULATING BIOLOGY ........................................................ 29
ROBOTICS EMULATING BIOLOGY (CONTINUED) ............................. 30
ROBOTICS EMULATING BIOLOGY (CONTINUED) ............................. 31
FIGURE 5- APPLICATION OF EAP ACTUATORS IN ROBOTS............32
ROBOTICS MARKET .................................................................................. 33
TABLE 5 -FORECAST FOR EAP DEVICE USAGE IN DIGITAL
MECHATRONICS FOR MEDICAL BIOMETICS ROBOTICS AND
TOY ROBOTICS, 2012 AND 2017 .............................................................. 33
HAPTIC ACTUATORS ........................................................................................ 33
HAPTIC ACTUATORS (CONTINUED) .............................................................. 34
FIGURE 6 -APPLICATION OF ELECTROACTIVE
POLYMER-HAPTIC SWITCH .................................................................... 35
FIGURE 7 -APPLICATION OF ELECTROACTIVE
POLYMER – HAPTIC SWITCH LAYOUT ................................................. 36
TABLE 6- FORECAST FOR EAP ACTUATOR USAGE IN ...................... 36
HAPTIC APPLICATIONS, 2012 AND 2017 ............................................... 36
ADJUSTABLE APERTURES FOR CELLULAR PHONE CAMERAS.....37
TABLE 7 -SPECIFICATIONS FOR TYPICAL EAP
APERTURE MECHANISMS IN MOBILE PHONES ................................ 37
FIGURE 8 -ILLUSTRATIONS OF EAP APERTURE
MECHANISMS FOR PHONE CAMERAS ................................................. 38
TABLE 8 -FORECAST FOR EAP DEVICE USAGE IN
AJUSTABLE APERTURE ACTUATORS FOR CELL
PHONE CAMERA APPLICATIONS, 2012 AND 2017...............................38
LARGE STRAIN SENSING FUNCTIONS: WALL SHEAR
STRESS SENSORS ..................................................................................... 39
LARGE STRAIN SENSING FUNCTIONS: WALL SHEAR
STRESS SENSORS (CONTINUED) .......................................................... 40
WALL SHEAR STRESS SENSOR MARKET ............................................ 41
TABLE 9 - FORECAST FOR EAP DEVICE USAGE AS
SENSORS IN CIVIL AND STRUCTURAL
CONSTRUCTION, 2012 AND 2017 ............................................................ 42
WEARABLE DIELECTRIC ELASTOMER ACTUATORS ........................ 42
WEARABLE DIELECTRIC ELASTOMER ACTUATORS (CONT.) ......... 43
WEARABLE DE MARKET .......................................................................... 44
TABLE 10 - FORECAST FOR EAP DEVICE USAGE IN
SMART FABRIC SENSORS, 2012 AND 2017 ........................................... 44
COMBINED MARKET ACCORDING TO APPLICATIONS ............................. 44
TABLE 11 - SUMMARY OF GLOBAL MARKET FOR EAP
ACTUATORS BY APPLICATION, 2012 AND 2017 .................................. 45
MARKET ACCORDING TO MATERIAL TYPES .............................................. 45
TABLE 12 - FORECAST FOR MATERIAL USAGE IN EAP
ACTUATORS AND SENSORS, 2012 AND 2017 ....................................... 46
FIGURE 9 - ILLUSTRATION OF MARKET SHARE FOR
MATERIAL USAGE IN EAP ACTUATORS AND SENSORS
2012 AND 2017 ............................................................................................. 47
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4. INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS48 - 59
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INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS ........................................................ 48
TABLE 13 - BRANDED EAP ACTUATORS ON THE
MARKET IN 2012 ........................................................................................ 48
TABLE 13 - BRANDED EAP ACTUATORS ON THE
MARKET IN 2012 (CONTINUED) ............................................................. 49
FACTORS INFLUENCING MARKET PERFORMANCE
SUCCESS STORIES ............................................................................................ 50
BUSINESS MODELS AND INDUSTRY PARTICIPANTS ............................... 51
BUSINESS MODELS AND INDUSTRY PARTICIPANTS (CONTINUED) .... 52
TABLE 14 - EAP DEVICE MANUFACTURERS AND
PRODUCT AREAS ....................................................................................... 53
TABLE 14 - EAP DEVICE MANUFACTURERS AND
PRODUCT AREAS (CONTINUED) ............................................................ 54
TABLE 15 - MARKET SHARE OF TOP MANUFACTURERS
OF EAP ACTUATORS IN 2012 ................................................................... 55
REGIONAL MARKETS ....................................................................................... 56
FIGURE 10 - REGIONAL PERCENTAGES OF MARKET
SHARE FOR EAP DEVICES, 2012 AND 2017 .......................................... 57
ACQUISITIONS AND MERGERS ...................................................................... 58
TABLE 17 - PARTNERSHIP AND COLLABORATION
DEALS OF POLYMER ACTUATORS, 2005 TO 2012 ............................... 58
TABLE 17 - PARTNERSHIP AND COLLABORATION
DEALS OF POLYMER ACTUATORS, 2005 TO 2012 (CONTINUED) .... 59
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5. TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW CHAPTER60 - 77
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TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW OF EAP ACTUATORS AND SENSORS.............60
DIELECTRIC EAPS AND ELASTOMER ACTUATORS ................................... 60
CONSTRUCTION AND CHARACTERISTICS ......................................... 61
CONSTRUCTION AND CHARACTERISTICS (CONTINUED) .............. 62
FIGURE 11 - DIELECTRIC ELASTOMER POLYMER
ACTUATOR CONSTRUCTION .................................................................. 63
IONIC POLYMER METAL COMPOSITES ACTUATORS ................................ 64
FIGURE 12 - STRUCTURE OF IONIC POLYMER METAL
COMPOSITES .............................................................................................. 65
CONDUCTIVE POLYMER ACTUATORS ......................................................... 65
COMPARISON OF EAP ACTUATORS VERSUS OTHER ACTUATORS ....... 66
FIGURE 13 - COMPARISION OF EAP ACTUATORS WITH
OTHER ACTUATORS ................................................................................. 67
FIGURE 14 - PERFORMANCE OF KEY TYPES OFACTUATORS ......... 69
COMPARISON OF EAP SENSORS .................................................................... 69
TABLE 18 - COMPARISON OF IONOMERIC POLYMER
SENSORS AND PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS ........................................ 70
MATERIALS USED IN EAP ACTUATORS ....................................................... 71
TABLE 19 - MATERIALS USED IN ELECTROACTIVE
ACTUATORS AND SENSORS ................................................................... 72
CHARACTERSTICS OF EAP ACTUATORS ...................................................... 73
CHARACTERSTICS OF EAP ACTUATORS (CONTINUED) ........................... 74
TABLE 20 - CHARACTERISTICS AND PROPERTIES
OF EAP-TYPE ACTUATORS ...................................................................... 75
DEVELOPING EAP TECHNOLOGIES ............................................................. 76
TABLE 21 - COMPARISION OF WORK DENSITIES
AND STRAINS OF EAP ACTUATORS ...................................................... 77
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6. NEW DEVELOPMENTS AND PATENT ANALYSIS CHAPTER 78 - 107
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NEW DEVELOPMENTS AND PATENT ANALYSIS ........................................... 78
U.S. PATENTS AND PATENT ANALYSIS ........................................................ 78
TABLE 22 - NUMBER OF U.S. PATENTS GRANTED TO COMPANIES
MANUFACTURING EAP ACTUATORS AND SENSORS FROM
2008 THROUGH 2012 (TO MAY 31) .......................................................... 79
FIGURE 15 - TOP COMPANIES IN TERMS OF U.S.PATENTS
GRANTED FOR EAP ACTUATORS AND SENSORS FROM
JANUARY 2008 THROUGH MAY 2012...................................... ............... 80
OVERVIEW OF INTERNATIONAL U.S. PATENT ACTIVITY
IN EAP ACTUATORS AND SENSORS .............................................................. 80
TABLE 23 - NUMBER OF U.S. PATENTS GRANTED BY
ASSIGNED COUNTRY/REGION FOR EAP ACTUATORS
AND SENSORS FROM JANUARY 2008 THROUGH MAY 2012 ............ 81
DETAILS OF U.S. PATENTS ISSUED FOR ELECTROACTIVE
POLYMERS AND DEVICES ............................................................................... 81
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER ACTUATED DEVICES ........................... 81
INTERNAL MEDICAL DEVICES FOR DELIVERY OF
THERAPEUTIC AGENT IN CONJUNCTION WITH A
SOURCE OF ELECTRICAL POWER ......................................................... 82
DEVICES AND METHODS FOR STRICTURE DILATION .................... 82
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER ACTIVATION SYSTEM FOR
A MEDICAL DEVICE .................................................................................. 82
METHOD FOR FABRICATING ELECTROACTIVE
POLYMER TRANSDUCER ......................................................................... 82
ELECTROADHESIVE DEVICES ............................................................... 83
WALL CRAWLING ROBOTS ...................................................................... 83
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER BASED ARTIFICIAL
SPHINCTERS AND ARTIFICIAL MUSCLE PATCHES .......................... 83
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER DEVICE ................................................... 84
ELECTROCHEMICAL ACTUATOR .......................................................... 84
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER TRANSDUCERS BIASED
FOR OPTIMAL OUTPUT ............................................................................ 84
OPTICAL LENS DISPLACEMENT SYSTEMS ........................................ 85
METHOD OF FABRICATING AN ELECTROACTIVE
POLYMER TRANSDUCER ......................................................................... 85
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER ACTUATED MEDICAL DEVICES.... .... 85
ELECTROCHEMICAL ACTUATOR .......................................................... 85
ELECTROCHEMICAL METHODS, DEVICES, AND STRUCTURES ... 86
HIGH-PERFORMANCE ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER
TRANSDUCERS .......................................................................................... 86
CIRCUITS FOR ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER GENERATORS ........... 86
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER DEVICES FOR
CONTROLLING FLUID FLOW .................................................................. 87
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER TRANSDUCERS FOR
SENSORY FEEDBACK APPLICATIONS .................................................. 87
EMBEDDED ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER STRUCTURES
FOR USE IN MEDICAL DEVICES ............................................................ 87
OPTICAL LENS DISPLACEMENT SYSTEMS ........................................ 88
ROTATABLE CATHETER ASSEMBLY .................................................... 88
METHOD FOR FORMING AN ELECTROACTIVE
POLYMER TRANSDUCER ......................................................................... 88
MEDICAL BALLOON INCORPORATING ELECTROACTIVE
POLYMER AND METHODS OF MAKING AND USING THE SAME ... 89
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER TRANSDUCERS BIASED
FOR INCREASED OUTPUT ....................................................................... 89
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER ACTUATED LIGHTING ......................... 89
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER-BASED ARTICULATION
MECHANISM FOR MULTI-FIRE SURGICAL FASTENING
INSTRUMENT ............................................................................................. 90
FAULT-TOLERANT MATERIALS AND METHODS OF
FABRICATING THE SAME ........................................................................ 90
MONOLITHIC ELECTROACTIVE POLYMERS ...................................... 90
CATHETERS HAVING ACTUATABLE LUMEN
ASSEMBLIES .............................................................................................. 91
COMPLIANT ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER TRANSDUCERS FOR
SONIC APPLICATIONS ............................................................................. 91
OPTICAL LENS IMAGE STABILIZATION SYSTEMS ........................... 91
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER-BASED ACTUATION MECHANISM
FOR GRASPER ............................................................................................ 91
CONDUCTIVE POLYMER COMPOSITE STRUCTURE ......................... 92
ACTUATOR BODY AND THROTTLE MECHANISM .............................. 92
INTERNAL MEDICAL DEVICES FOR DELIVERY OF THERAPUTIC
AGENT IN CONJUNCTION WITH A SOURCE OF ELECTRICAL
POWER............................................................................................. ............ 92
TEAR RESISTANT ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER TRANSDUCERS ... 93
SURFACE DEFORMATION ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER
TRANSDUCERS .......................................................................................... 93
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER PRE-STRAIN ........................................... 93
MRI RESONATOR SYSTEM WITH STENT IMPLANT .......................... 94
VARIABLE STIFFNESS CATHETER ASSEMBLY .................................. 94
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER ACTUATED GASTRIC BAND.. ............. 94
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER-BASED LUMEN
TRAVERSING DEVICE .............................................................................. 95
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER ACTUATED MOTORS............................95
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER-BASED PERCUTANEOUS
ENDOSCOPY GASTROSTOMY TUBE AND METHODS OF USE... ...... 95
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER TORSIONAL DEVICE ............................ 95
HAPTIC STYLUS UTILIZING AN ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER ........ 96
POLYMER ACTUATOR HAVING ACTIVE MEMBER LAYER THAT
EXPANDS OR CONTRACTS UPON APPLICATION OF
ELECTRIC FIELD ....................................................................................... 96
SURGICAL STAPLING INSTRUMENTS STRUCTURED
FOR DELIVERY OF MEDICAL AGENTS ................................................. 96
ARTICULATION JOINT WITH IMPROVED MOMENT ARM
EXTENSION FOR ARTICULATING AN END EFFECTOR OF A
SURGICAL INSTRUMENT ........................................................................ 97
ROBOTIC ENDOSCOPE ............................................................................. 97
WAVE POWERED GENERATION ............................................................. 97
SURGICAL STAPLING INSTRUMENT HAVING AN
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER ACTUATED SINGLE
LOCKOUT MECHANISM FOR PREVENTION OF FIRING ................... 98
THREE-DIMENSIONAL ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER
ACTUATED DEVICES ................................................................................ 98
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER ACTUATED DEVICES ........................... 98
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER BASED ARTIFICIAL SPHINCTERS
AND ARTIFICIAL MUSCLE PATCHES ................................................... 98
SURGICAL INSTRUMENT HAVING FLUID ACTUATED
OPPOSING JAWS ........................................................................................ 99
WAVE POWERED GENERATION ............................................................. 99
POLYMER ACTUATOR ............................................................................ 100
MULTIPLE FIRING STROKE SURGICAL INSTRUMENT
INCORPORATING ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER ANTI-BACKUP
MECHANISM ............................................................................................. 100
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER TRANSDUCERS BIASED
FOR INCREASED OUTPUT ..................................................................... 100
EXTERNAL COUNTERPULSATION DEVICE USING
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER ACTUATORS ......................................... 101
SURGICAL INSTRUMENT INCORPORATING EAP COMPLETE
FIRING SYSTEM LOCKOUT MECHANISM............................. ............. 101
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER ELECTRODES ...................................... 101
ANASTOMOTIC RING APPLIER DEVICE UTILIZING AN
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER ................................................................. 102
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER MOTORS ............................................... 102
BIFURCATED STENT .............................................................................. 102
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER PRE-STRAIN ......................................... 103
HIGH POWER-TO-MASS RATIO ACTUATOR ....................................... 103
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER ANIMATED DEVICES ......................... 103
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER-BASED ACTUATION
MECHANISM FOR CIRCULAR STAPLER ............................................. 104
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER-BASED ACTUATION
MECHANISM FOR LINEAR SURGICAL STAPLER ............................. 104
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER-BASED ACTUATION
MECHANISM FOR MULTI-FIRE SURGICAL FASTENING
INSTRUMENT ........................................................................................... 104
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER DEVICES FOR MOVING FLUID..... ... 105
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER TORSIONAL DEVICE .......................... 105
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER ACTUATED HEART-LUNG
BYPASS PUMPS ........................................................................................ 105
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER GENERATORS ...................................... 106
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER-BASED PUMP ....................................... 106
HAPTIC DEVICES USING ELECTROACTIVE POLYMERS................106
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER ACTUATED SHEATH FOR
IMPLANTABLE OR INSERTABLE MEDICAL DEVICE ....................... 107
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7. COMPANY PROFILES CHAPTER108 - 129
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APPENDIX I - COMPANY PROFILES ................................................................ 108
ARTIFICIAL MUSCLE, INC. ......................................................................... 108
BOSTON SCIENTIFIC INC. .......................................................................... 109
CEDRAT RECHERCHE SA (CEDRAT) ......................................................... 110
CENTRO RICERCHE FIAT (CRF) S.P.A. ..................................................... 110
CTSYSTEMS LTD. .......................................................................................... 110
CYPRESS SEMICONDUCTOR CORPORATION ......................................... 111
DANFOSS POLYPOWER A/S ........................................................................ 112
EAMEX CORPORATION ................................................................................ 112
ENVIRONMENTAL ROBOTS INC. ............................................................... 113
ETHICON ENDO-SURGERY, INC. (EES) ................................................... 115
HANSON ROBOTICS ..................................................................................... 115
JET PROPULSION LAB ................................................................................. 116
MCNC RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE ................................. 116
MEDIPACS LLC .............................................................................................. 117
MICROMUSCLE AB ....................................................................................... 118
OPHTHALMOTRONICS LLC ........................................................................ 118
OPTOTUNE AG ............................................................................................... 119
PHILIPS RESEARCH EUROPE .................................................................... 119
PIEZOTECH S.A.S. ......................................................................................... 119
SENSATEX INC. ............................................................................................. 120
SENSEG ........................................................................................................... 120
APPENDIX II - LIST OF SUPPLIERS OF EAP MATERIAL...........................122
3M ..................................................................................................................... 122
ABTECH SCIENTIFIC, INC. ......................................................................... 122
ALFA AESAR ................................................................................................... 122
AMERICAN DYE SOURCE, INC. .................................................................. 123
ASAHI GLASS ................................................................................................. 123
DEGUSSA GMBH ........................................................................................... 124
DOW CORNING CORPORATION...............................................................................124
DUPONT COMPANY ...................................................................................... 124
HERAEUS HOLDING ..................................................................................... 125
JOHNSON MATTHEY PLC ........................................................................... 125
KLÖCKNER PENTAPLAST OF AMERICA, INC. ........................................ 126
MARKTEK INC. .............................................................................................. 126
MERCK KGAA ................................................................................................. 126
NANOSONIC, INC. ......................................................................................... 127
ORMECON GMBH .......................................................................................... 127
RTP COMPANY ............................................................................................... 128
SIGMA-ALDRICH CORPORATION .............................................................. 128
STERLING FIBERS, INC. .............................................................................. 129
SUMITOMO CHEMICAL ............................................................................... 129
THE DOW CHEMICAL COMPANY .............................................................. 129
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