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FUEL CELLS, HYDROGEN ENERGY AND RELATED NANOTECHNOLOGY – A GLOBAL INDUSTRY AND MARKET ANALYSIS
(View Introduction/Table Of Contents)
Publish Date: Jun 2009,   Pages: 773,   Report Code: EN-103
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1. INTRODUCTIONI-VIII
Free

INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................................I

STUDY GOAL AND OBJECTIVES ............................................................................................. II

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY .......................................................................................III

CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE STUDY.......................................................................................... IV

SCOPE AND FORMAT................................................................................................................ IV

METHODOLOGY..........................................................................................................................V

INFORMATION SOURCES ........................................................................................................ VI

WHOM THE STUDY CATERS TO............................................................................................VII

AUTHOR’S CREDENTIALS .................................................................................................... VIII

 Add 
2. EXECUTIVE SUMMARYIX-XII
$300.00
$210.00

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.............................................................................................................. IX

SUMMARY TABLE A SUMMARY OF WORLD VALUE FUEL CELL, HYDROGEN

ENERGY AND RELATED NANOTECHNOLOGY 2008..............................................................X

SUMMARY FIGURE A NANOTECHNOLOGY, FUEL CELLS AND HYDROGEN

ENERGY BY NUMBER OF ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED, 2008 ...........................................X

SUMMARY TABLE B VALUE OF FUEL CELLS, HYDROGEN AND RELATED

NANOTECHNOLOGY 2008 ......................................................................................................... XI

SUMMARY FIGURE B SHARE OF NANO-ENABLED FUEL CELLS AND HYDROGEN

ENERGY WITH THAT OF THE TOTAL, 2008 .......................................................................... XI

 Add 
3. INDUSTRY OVERVIEW1-13
$780.00
$546.00

INDUSTRY OVERVIEW .................................................................................................................... 1

TABLE 1 VALUE FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGY TYPE, HYDROGEN ENERGY AND

RELATED NANOTECHNOLOGY, 2008 ....................................................................................... 2

FIGURE 1 TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS VALUE AND NANO TECHNOLOGY

VALUE, 2008................................................................................................................................... 3

TABLE 2 VALUE OF FUEL CELL NANOTECHNOLOGY, 2009-2014 CAGR ............................... 4

TABLE 3 VALUE OF FUEL CELL AND HYDROGEN ENERGY, 2009-2014 CAGR..................... 6

FIGURE 2 WORLD DISTRIBUTION OF ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN FUEL

CELLS, HYDROGEN ENERGY AND RELATED NANOTECHNOLOGIES, 2009................... 7

TABLE 4 WORLD DISTRIBUTION OF ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN FUEL

CELLS, HYDROGEN ENERGY AND RELATED NANOTECHNOLOGIES, 2009................... 8

FUEL CELL MARKETS BY NATION.......................................................................................... 8

FIGURE 3 TOP 20 COUNTRIES IN FUEL CELL & HYDROGEN ENERGY

DEVELOPMENT............................................................................................................................ 9

TABLE 5 TOP TWENTY COUNTRIES IN FUEL CELL & HYDROGEN ENERGY

DEVELOPMENT, 2008................................................................................................................. 10

FIGURE 4 FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGY MARKET VALUE BY NATION, 2008 (TOTAL

VALUE $8.8 BILLION) ................................................................................................................. 11

NANOTECHNOLOGY MARKETS BY NATION....................................................................... 12

TABLE 6 WORLDWIDE VALUE OF FUEL CELLS, HYDROGEN ENERGY AND

RELATED NANOTECHNOLOGY BY NATION, 2008............................................................... 13

 Add 
4. MARKET BY TECHNOLOGY14-24
$550.00
$385.00

MARKET BY TECHNOLOGY......................................................................................................... 14

TABLE 7 FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGY PARAMETERS, 2009 ...................................................... 14

TABLE 8 VALUE OF NANOTECHNOLOGY RELATED TO FUEL CELL

TECHNOLOGY & HYDROGEN ENERGY, 2008 ....................................................................... 15

FIGURE 5 VALUE OF FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGY (PEMFC, DMFC, SOFC),

HYDROGEN ENERGY, AND RELATED NANOTECHNOLOGY, 2008 ($ MILLIONS)......... 16

PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS AND NANOTECHNOLOGY............... 16

DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELLS AND NANOTECHNOLOGY........................................ 17

SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS & NANOTECHNOLOGY.......................................................... 18

MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS AND NANOTECHNOLOGY .................................... 19

PHOSPHORIC ACID FUEL CELLS AND NANOTECHNOLOGY.......................................... 20

HYDROGEN ENERGY AND NANOTECHNOLOGY ............................................................... 21

MATERIALS/CATALYSTS.......................................................................................................... 23

 Add 
5. MARKETS BY APPLICATION25-110
$3,010.00
$2,107.00

MARKETS BY APPLICATION ...................................................................................................... 25

TABLE 9 WORLD VALUE FUEL CELL & HYDROGEN ENERGY APPLICATIONS:

PORTABLE, STATIONARY, VEHICLE, FUEL, CAGR 2009-2014 ($ MILLIONS)................. 25

TABLE 10 VALUE OF FUEL CELL & HYDROGEN ENERGY APPLICATIONS:

PORTABLE, STATIONARY, VEHICLE, FUEL, 2009-2014 CAGR .......................................... 26

FIGURE 6 PERCENT HYDROGEN USE BY FUEL CELL APPLICATION, 2014....................... 27

TABLE 11 HYDROGEN USE BY FUEL CELL APPLICATION, 2014 .......................................... 28

FIGURE 7 WORLD VALUE OF ALL FUEL CELL AND HYDROGEN ENERGY AND

NANOTECHNOLOGY BY APPLICATION, 2008 ($ MILLIONS) ............................................. 29

TABLE 12 NANOTECHNOLOGY VALUE RELATED TO FUEL CELLS AND

HYDROGEN BY APPLICATION, 2008 ....................................................................................... 29

FIGURE 8 WORLD FUEL CELL & HYDROGEN ENERGY TECHNOLOGY BY

APPLICATION 2008 ..................................................................................................................... 30

TABLE 13 NANOTECHNOLOGY VALUE RELATED TO FUEL CELL AND

HYDROGEN BY APPLICATION ALONG WITH NUMBER OF ORGANIZATIONS

INVOLVED, 2008 .......................................................................................................................... 31

PORTABLE.................................................................................................................................. 32

TABLE 14 VALUE OF PORTABLE FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS, 2009-2014 CAGR ............... 33

MILITARY 1W TO 5KW ................................................................................................. 34

SMALL ELECTRONICS (<1 W TO 20 W).................................................................... 36

LARGE ELECTRONICS (20 W-250 W)........................................................................ 37

BATTERY CHARGING (1 W-1 KW)............................................................................. 37

OTHER 1W-1KW APPLICATIONS............................................................................... 38

STATIONARY.............................................................................................................................. 40

FIGURE 9 GLOBAL ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION CAPACITY, 2009

(GIGAWATTS) ............................................................................................................................... 40

TABLE 15 GIGAWATTS NEW ANNUAL ELECTRIC POWER BY CONTINENT, 2009 ............. 41

TABLE 16 CUMULATIVE STATIONARY FUEL CELL GROWTH BY MEGAWATT

2008-2014 ...................................................................................................................................... 42

TABLE 17 CONTRASTING VALUE OF FUEL CELL MEGAWATTS IN U.S. & JAPAN,

2009................................................................................................................................................ 43

TABLE 18 ALL FUEL CELLS HIGH PENETRATION STATIONARY, 2009-2004...................... 44

TABLE 19 MIDDLE PENETRATION FUEL CELL STATIONARY MARKET, 2009-2014.......... 45

TABLE 20 LOW ESTIMATE: STATIONARY MARKET PENETRATION 2009-2014 .................. 46

TABLE 21 CUMULATIVE VALUE OF INSTALLED FUEL CELL BASE, 2009-2014................. 46

TABLE 22 VALUE OF MEGAWATTS FROM CUMULATIVE FUEL CELL

INSTALLATIONS 2009-2014....................................................................................................... 47

TABLE 23 HYDROGEN CONSUMPTION BY CUMULATIVE FUEL CELL

INSTALLATIONS, 2009-2014...................................................................................................... 48

TABLE 24 STATIONARY FUEL CELL VALUES COMPARISON MW, MWHS, H2 KG

CONSUMPTION, 2009-2014 ........................................................................................................ 49

TABLE 25 LONG TERM ELECTRIC POWER GROWTH BY REGION 2005-2030...................... 50

TABLE 26 WORLD GIGAWATTS COMPARED TO FUEL CELL GIGAWATTS, 2009................ 51

FIGURE 10 U.S. STATIONARY MARKET SHARES: INDUSTRIAL, RESIDENTIAL

AND COMMERCIAL, 2009........................................................................................................... 52

TABLE 27 COST OF COMPETING POWER GENERATING TECHNOLOGIES ........................ 53

TABLE 27 COST OF COMPETING POWER GENERATING TECHNOLOGIES

(CONTINUED).............................................................................................................................. 54

RESIDENTIAL POWER................................................................................................. 55

TABLE 28 FUEL CELL MARKET PENETRATION: IRAP RESIDENTIAL

CONSENSUS CAGR 2009-2014................................................................................................... 55

TABLE 29 WORLD MARKET FOR RESIDENTIAL ELECTRIC POWER VALUE AND

GIGAWATTS, 2009-2014 .............................................................................................................. 56

TABLE 30 HIGH FUEL CELL PENETRATION RESIDENTIAL MARKET, 2009-2014 ............. 57

TABLE 31 MID-RANGE FUEL CELL RESIDENTIAL PENETRATION SCENARIO................. 58

TABLE 32 LOW RESIDENTIAL FUEL CELL PENETRATION SCENARIO............................... 59

FIGURE 11 RESIDENTIAL FUEL CELL SYSTEMS, 2007........................................................... 61

FIGURE 12 PEMFC FUEL CELL CHP SCHEME AND JAPANESE RESIDENTIAL

FUEL CELL PRODUCTS, 2009................................................................................................... 62

TABLE 33 LARGE-SCALE FUEL CELL DEMONSTRATION PROJECT SUPPLIER &

MANUFACTURER....................................................................................................................... 63

TABLE 34 FUEL CELL MANUFACTURER MARKET SHARES OF JAPANESE

RESIDENTIAL MARKET, 2008................................................................................................... 64

FIGURE 13 MARKET SHARES OF JAPANESE RESIDENTIAL DEMONSTRATION

PROJECT, 2008............................................................................................................................ 65

TABLE 35 JAPANESE STATIONARY FUEL CELL MARKET, 2007 ........................................... 65

TABLE 36 JAPANESE SUBSIDIES FOR 1-KW FUEL CELL CHP 2005-2008............................ 66

FIGURE 14 MARKET SHARES OF JAPANESE FUEL CELL MARKET BY

INSTALLER, 2007......................................................................................................................... 68

TABLE 37 RESIDENTIAL FUEL CELL INSTALLER MARKET SHARES, JAPAN 2007.......... 68

COMMERCIAL MARKET .............................................................................................. 69

TABLE 38 FUELCELL PENETRATION, COMMERCIAL MARKET, 2009-2014 ........................ 69

TABLE 39 WORLD MARKET FOR COMMERCIAL ELECTRIC POWER,................................... 70

2009-2014............................................................................................................................................. 70

TABLE 40 HIGH FUEL CELL PENETRATION COMMERCIAL MARKET, 2007-2014 ............. 73

TABLE 41 MIDDLE FUEL CELL PENETRATION COMMERCIAL MARKET, 2007-2014........ 73

TABLE 42 LOW FUEL CELL PENETRATION COMMERCIAL MARKET, 2009-2014............... 74

INDUSTRIAL MARKET................................................................................................. 74

TABLE 43 INDUSTRIAL FUEL CELL MARKET PENETRATION, 2009-2014........................... 75

TABLE 44 VALUE & GW WORLD INDUSTRIAL ELECTRICITY GROWTH, 2009-2014 .......... 76

TABLE 45 FUEL CELL INDUSTRIAL MARKET, 2009-2014 CAGR ............................................ 77

TABLE 46 INDUSTRIAL FUEL CELL MID-MARKET PENETRATION ..................................... 78

TABLE 47 INDUSTRIAL FUEL CELL HIGH MARKET PENETRATION................................... 79

BACK-UP/UNINTERRUPTIBLE SUPPLY/STAND-BY.............................................. 80

TABLE 48 SUMMARY FUEL CELL BACKUP POWER MARKET FOR FOUR

APPLICATIONS, 2009-2014......................................................................................................... 81

TABLE 49 VALUE FC BACK-UP POWER, 2009-2014 .................................................................... 81

TABLE 50 BACK-UP POWER FOR WIRELESS STATION MARKET, 2009-2014....................... 83

TABLE 51 BACK-UP POWER FOR WIRELINE STATIONS ......................................................... 84

TABLE 52 FUEL CELL BACK-UP POWER FOR UTILITY STATIONS, 2009-2014 ................... 85

TABLE 53 BACK-UP POWER FOR BROADBAND STATIONS, 2009-2014 ................................. 86

TABLE 54 ANNUAL U.S. FEDERAL MARKET FOR UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER

SUPPLY, 2008-2014 ...................................................................................................................... 87

TABLE 55 FUEL CELL VEHICLE APPLICATIONS VALUE, 2009-2014..................................... 90

PASSENGER VEHICLES .............................................................................................. 91

FIGURE 15 TECHNOLOGY STATUS OF FUEL CELLS FOR TRANSPORTATION,

2007................................................................................................................................................ 92

FIGURE 16 EUROPEAN H2 & FUEL CELL DEMONSTRATION ROADMAP FOR

ROAD VEHICLES, 2008-2015...................................................................................................... 95

TABLE 56 COMPARISON OF DEVELOPMENTS BETWEEN FUEL CELL

AUTOMOBILES AND FUEL CELL SCOOTERS, 2009 ............................................................ 96

AEROSPACE AND AVIATION INDUSTRY................................................................. 97

FIGURE 17 FUEL CELL AVIATION APPLICATIONS .................................................................. 98

TABLE 57 FUEL CELL & HYDROGEN ENERGY AVIATION FIRSTS, 2007-2008 ................... 98

TABLE 58 AEROSPACE AND AVIATION INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS.................................... 99

BUSES............................................................................................................................. 99

TABLE 59 TYPICAL UNITED STATES TRANSIT BUS COSTS, 2009...................................... 100

TABLE 60 FUEL CELL BUS AND RELATED NANOTECHNOLOGY GROWTH 2009-

2014.............................................................................................................................................. 101

TABLE 61 EUROPEAN FUEL CELL BUS PENETRATION 2010-1015..................................... 102

FIGURE 18 EUROPEAN FUEL CELL BUS TARGETS, 2010-2015............................................ 103

FORKLIFTS AND MATERIAL HANDLING.............................................................. 104

TABLE 62 COST ANALYSIS OF FORKLIFTS IN DOUBLE-SHIFT OPERATIONS:............... 106

FUEL CELL VS PROPANE .............................................................................................................. 106

TABLE 63 ADVANTAGES OF PEMFC FORKLIFTS VERSUS BATTERY-OR

PROPANE- POWERED FORKLIFTS........................................................................................ 107

TABLE 64 MARKETS FOR PEMFC-POWERED FORK LIFTS IN U.S. FEDERAL

AGENCIES, 2009......................................................................................................................... 107

HYDROGEN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE VEHICLES............................. 108

SCOOTERS/BICYCLES/WHEELCHAIRS.................................................................. 108

MARINE......................................................................................................................... 109

AUXILIARY POWER UNITS (APUS) ......................................................................... 109

 Add 
6. HYDROGEN ENERGY APPLICATIONS (FUEL)111-127
$595.00
$416.50

HYDROGEN ENERGY APPLICATIONS (FUEL).......................................................................... 111

FIGURE 19 PERCENT HYDROGEN USE BY FUEL CELL APPLICATION, 2014................... 111

TABLE 65 HYDROGEN USE BY FUEL CELL APPLICATION, 2014 ........................................ 112

TABLE 66 BULK H2 GAS COSTS, 2009...................................................................................... 113

FIGURE 20 HYDROGEN ENERGY APPLICATIONS .................................................................. 114

TABLE 67 HYDROGEN ENERGY COMPONENT COSTS, 2009-2014....................................... 115

TABLE 68 HYDROGEN METRIC TONS & VALUE BY FUEL CELL APPLICATION,

2009-2014 .................................................................................................................................... 117

STATIONARY HYDROGEN ..................................................................................................... 118

TABLE 69 HYDROGEN ENERGY CONVERSION $KG H2/KWH.............................................. 118

TABLE 70 HYDROGEN ENERGY CONVERSIONS..................................................................... 119

VEHICLE HYDROGEN............................................................................................................. 120

PORTABLE HYDROGEN.......................................................................................................... 121

HYDROGEN AND NANOTECHNOLOGY .............................................................................. 121

TABLE 71 VALUE NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION,

PURIFICATION, STORAGE AND NANO-ENABLED HYDROGEN, 2009-2014.................. 122

HYDROGEN PRODUCTION AND NANOTECHNOLOGY ...................................... 122

WIND HYDROGEN ......................................................................................... 124

TABLE 72 HYDROGEN COSTS AT FACTORY LEVEL............................................................... 125

HYDROGEN PURIFICATION AND NANOTECHNOLOGY.................................... 125

HYDROGEN STORAGE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY.............................................. 126

TABLE 73 U.S. CONSENSUS CODES & STANDARDS: PASSENGER VEHICLES................ 126

TABLE 73 U.S. CONSENSUS CODES & STANDARDS: PASSENGER VEHICLES

(CONTINUED)............................................................................................................................ 127

 Add 
7. NANOMATERIALS128-152
$875.00
$612.50

NANOMATERIALS....................................................................................................................... 128

PLATINUM AND NANOTECHNOLOGY................................................................................ 128

TABLE 74 RELATIONSHIP OF CATALYST LOADING BY WEIGHT TO MEMBRANE

ELECTROLYTE BY METER...................................................................................................... 130

TABLE 75 PLATINUM LOADING AND PLATINUM COSTS: PER WATT, PER

KILOWATT, PER 100 KILOWATT ............................................................................................ 131

TABLE 76 RELATIONSHIP OF ONE OUNCE OF PLATINUM LOADING TO

KILOWATTS OF POWER........................................................................................................... 132

FIGURE 21 STEPS IN MANUFACTURING FUEL CELL PLATINUM ELECTRODES .......... 134

CARBON AND NANOTECHNOLOGY .................................................................................... 138

TABLE 77 CARBON NANOTUBE MANUFACTURERS, 2009.................................................... 140

TABLE 78 ADVANTAGES OF ALIGNED CARBON NANOTUBE (ACNT) MEA ...................... 141

GOLD AND NANOTECHNOLOGY.......................................................................................... 141

METAL-ORGANIC FRAMEWORK (MOF) COMPOUNDS.................................................... 142

NICKEL AND NANOTECHNOLOGY...................................................................................... 143

PALLADIUM AND NANOTECHNOLOGY ............................................................................. 144

TABLE 79 MAJOR PALLADIUM PRODUCERS, 2005................................................................. 145

RUTHENIUM AND NANOTECHNOLOGY............................................................................ 145

TABLE 80 NANO-RUTHENIUM FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS ................................................ 146

TITANIUM................................................................................................................................. 146

AEROGEL.................................................................................................................................. 147

YTTRIA-STABILIZED ZIRCONIA (YSZ) AND OTHER SOFC MATERIALS ...................... 148

TABLE 81 NANOSTRUCTURED SOFC MEA MATERIALS....................................................... 149

TABLE 82 RARE-EARTH OXIDE PRICES IN 2009 ..................................................................... 151

ZEOLITES.................................................................................................................................. 151

 Add 
8. STRUCTURE OF THE INDUSTRY153-207
$1,925.00
$1,347.50

STRUCTURE OF THE INDUSTRY................................................................................................. 153

TABLE 83 TOP 40 FUEL CELL COMPANIES, 2009.................................................................... 155

TABLE 83 TOP 40 FUEL CELL COMPANIES, 2009 (CONTINUED)......................................... 156

TABLE 83 TOP 40 FUEL CELL COMPANIES, 2009 (CONTINUED)......................................... 157

TABLE 84 FUEL CELL & NANOTECHNOLOGY STOCKS........................................................ 158

TABLE 84 FUEL CELL & NANOTECHNOLOGY STOCKS (CONTINUED)............................. 159

GOVERNMENT PROGRAMS INFLUENCING INDUSTRY STRUCTURE......................... 159

TABLE 85 TOP GOVERNMENT PROGRAMS, 2009-2014........................................................... 161

TABLE 85 TOP GOVERNMENT PROGRAMS, 2009-2014 (CONTINUED)................................ 162

AMERICAN RECOVERY AND REINVESTMENT ACT OF 2009 (AARA) .............. 164

PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS: STRUCTURE OF THE

INDUSTRY.......................................................................................................................... 167

TABLE 86 TOP PEMFC COMPANIES, 2009................................................................................. 168

TABLE 86 TOP PEMFC COMPANIES, 2009 (CONTINUED)...................................................... 169

TABLE 86 TOP PEMFC COMPANIES, 2009 (CONTINUED)...................................................... 170

DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELLS: STRUCTURE OF THE INDUSTRY......................... 171

TABLE 87 TOP 30 DMFC COMPANIES, 2009 .............................................................................. 173

TABLE 87 TOP 30 DMFC COMPANIES, 2009 (CONTINUED)................................................... 174

SOFC, MCFC, PAFC: STRUCTURE OF THE INDUSTRY .................................................... 176

TABLE 88 TOP 30 SOFC, MCFC, PAFC COMPANIES................................................................ 177

TABLE 88 TOP 30 SOFC, MCFC, PAFC COMPANIES (CONTINUED)..................................... 178

TABLE 88 TOP 30 SOFC, MCFC, PAFC COMPANIES (CONTINUED)..................................... 179

TABLE 89 SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL MANUFACTURERS ..................................................... 183

MATERIALS: STRUCTURE OF THE INDUSTRY................................................................. 184

TABLE 90 TOP FUEL CELL MATERIAL COMPANIES.............................................................. 186

HYDROGEN ENERGY: STRUCTURE OF THE INDUSTRY................................................ 187

TABLE 91 TOP 40 HYDROGEN ENERGY COMPANIES............................................................ 189

TABLE 91 TOP 40 HYDROGEN ENERGY COMPANIES (CONTINUED)................................. 190

TABLE 92 ESTIMATED UNITED STATES HYDROGEN PRODUCTION CAPACITY,

2003 AND 2006 ............................................................................................................................ 192

STATIONARY POWER: STRUCTURE OF THE INDUSTRY................................................ 193

TABLE 93 TOP STATIONARY FUEL CELL COMPANIES......................................................... 195

TABLE 93 TOP STATIONARY FUEL CELL COMPANIES (CONTINUED).............................. 196

TABLE 93 TOP STATIONARY FUEL CELL COMPANIES (CONTINUED).............................. 197

PORTABLE POWER: STRUCTURE OF THE INDUSTRY.................................................... 198

TABLE 94 TOP PORTABLE FUEL CELL COMPANIES ............................................................. 199

TABLE 94 TOP PORTABLE FUEL CELL COMPANIES (CONTINUED) .................................. 200

VEHICLE FUEL CELLS: STRUCTURE OF THE INDUSTRY ............................................. 202

TABLE 95 TOP VEHICLE FUEL CELL COMPANIES................................................................. 204

TABLE 95 TOP VEHICLE FUEL CELL COMPANIES (CONTINUED)...................................... 205

TABLE 95 TOP VEHICLE FUEL CELL COMPANIES (CONTINUED)...................................... 206

TABLE 95 TOP VEHICLE FUEL CELL COMPANIES (CONTINUED)...................................... 207

 Add 
9. METHODS OF MANUFACTURING NANO FUEL CELL COMPONENTS208-227
$665.00
$465.50

METHODS OF MANUFACTURING NANO FUEL CELL COMPONENTS...................................... 208

TABLE 96 METHODS OF MANUFACTURING PEMFC & DMFC NANO FUEL CELL

COMPONENTS.......................................................................................................................... 209

TABLE 97 FUEL CELL NANO MANUFACTURING PROCESSES............................................ 210

TABLE 98 METHODS OF MANUFACTURING SOFC NANO CELL COMPONENTS............. 210

BALL MILLING ............................................................................................................ 211

LASER METHOD.......................................................................................................... 211

FOCUSED ION BEAM LITHOGRAPHY.................................................................... 212

PHYSICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION.............................................................................. 212

CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION ............................................................................ 212

CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION-SOFC................................................................. 213

ELECTROCHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION .......................................................... 213

EVAPORATIVE DEPOSITION.................................................................................... 214

ELECTRON BEAM PHYSICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION ........................................... 214

SPUTTER DEPOSITION.............................................................................................. 215

CATHODIC ARC DEPOSITION.................................................................................. 215

PULSED LASER DEPOSITION.................................................................................. 215

DRY VACUUM COATING ........................................................................................... 215

LASER WELDING........................................................................................................ 215

INK JET PRINTING..................................................................................................... 216

PLASMA SPRAYING.................................................................................................... 217

SCREEN PRINTING..................................................................................................... 218

SINTERING................................................................................................................... 218

SOL-GEL........................................................................................................................ 219

SPRAY PYROLYSIS ..................................................................................................... 219

TAPE CASTING............................................................................................................ 220

TABLE 99 TAPE CASTING MACHINE MANUFACTURERS..................................................... 221

FIGURE 22 TAPE CASTING STEPS ............................................................................................. 223

EVALUATION/TESTING/ANALYSIS......................................................................... 224

TABLE 100 EVALUATION/TESTING/ANALYSIS EQUIPMENT ............................................ 224

TABLE 101 MANUFACTURING/PROCESSING TECHNOLOGIES ......................................... 225

TABLE 102 CAPACITOR/ELECTRICITY STORAGE TECHNOLOGY...................................... 225

TABLE 103 ................................................................................................................................ 226

BALANCE OF PLANT AND RELATED EQUIPMENT.................................................................. 226

TABLE 104 HEAT UTILIZATION/THERMAL TECHNOLOGY................................................. 226

 Add 
10. COST OF PROTON EXCHANGE FUEL CELLS228-235
$315.00
$220.50

COST OF PROTON EXCHANGE FUEL CELLS ............................................................................ 228

FIGURE 23 PEMFC COMPONENT SYSTEMS AND PERCENTAGE OF COST, 2007............ 229

TABLE 105 COMPARISON OF PEMFC STACK COST PER KILOWATT ................................. 229

TABLE 106 COMPONENT COST FOR 80-KW PEMFC, 2008 ..................................................... 230

FIGURE 24 MEMBRANE ELECTRODE ASSEMBLY COMPONENTS &

PERCENTAGE OF COST, 2007................................................................................................. 231

TABLE 107 MEMBRANE ELECTRODE ASSEMBLY COST BY MAJOR COMPONENT,

2007.............................................................................................................................................. 232

FIGURE 25 PERCENTAGE COST OF MEMBRANE ELECTRODE ASSEMBLY

MANUFACTURING BY COMPONENT, 2007.......................................................................... 232

TABLE 108 MEA MANUFACTURING DOLLAR COST PER KILOWATT, 2007....................... 233

FIGURE 26 PERCENTAGE COMPONENT COST IN MEA MANUFACTURING..................... 233

TABLE 109 DOLLAR COST PER KILOWATT BY COMPONENT FOR MEA

MANUFACTURING FOR 80KW PEMFC STACK.................................................................... 234

TABLE 110 MEA COSTS 2009 ........................................................................................................ 235

 Add 
11. SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL COSTS236-242
$280.00
$196.00

SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL COSTS ............................................................................................... 236

TABLE 111 COST ESTIMATES FOR A 5KW SOFC, 2008........................................................... 236

TABLE 112 COST OF YTTRIA-STABILIZED ZIRCONIA (YSZ) NANOPOWDER.................... 237

TABLE 113 SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL STACK COST ESTIMATE, 2008................................ 237

TABLE 114 SOLDI OXIDE FUEL CELL PROCESS ECONOMICS, 2008.................................. 238

FIGURE 27 SOFC SYSTEM COMPONENT COSTS, 2009 .......................................................... 238

TABLE 115 COMPONENT COST OF SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL, 2009 .................................. 239

TABLE 116 ECONOMIC SUMMARY OF 2-KW SOFC RESIDENTIAL COGENERATOR ........................... 240

TABLE 117 SOFC STACK MATERIAL COSTS, 2008 .................................................................. 241

TABLE 118 REPORTED SOFC STACK COSTS, 2008 ................................................................. 242

 Add 
12. HYDROGEN COSTS243-256
$280.00
$196.00

HYDROGEN COSTS....................................................................................................................... 243

FIGURE 28 NATURAL GAS REFORMING HYDROGEN PRODUCTION SYSTEM................ 243

TABLE 119 ESTIMATED HYDROGEN PRODUCTION COSTS, 2008....................................... 244

TABLE 119 ESTIMATED HYDROGEN PRODUCTION COSTS, 2008 (CONTINUED) ........... 245

TABLE 120 HYDROGEN STORAGE AND SUPPLY TECHNOLOGIES .................................... 247

FIGURE 29 HYDROGEN PRODUCTION GOALS & STATUS, 2008 ......................................... 248

TABLE 121 MEMBERSHIP OF INTERNATIONAL PARTNERSHIP FOR THE

HYDROGEN ECONOMY............................................................................................................ 249

HYDROGEN PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES .................................................................... 249

TABLE 122 GLOBAL DAILY HYDROGEN PRODUCTION BY FEEDSTOCK, 2007 ................ 250

TABLE 123 H2 AND CO2 PRODUCTION FROM COAL AND GAS, 2007 ................................... 251

TABLE 124 CURRENT PROCESSES FOR PRODUCING HYDROGEN.................................... 251

TABLE 125 COST ESTIMATES FOR SIX TYPES OF STATION EQUIPMENT, 2008............. 253

TABLE 126 CALIFORNIA –SHANGHAI COMPARISON FOR HYDROGEN DELIVERY........ 254

COMPRESSED GAS AND CRYOGENIC LIQUID STORAGE ................................. 254

TABLE 127 HYDROGEN STORAGE PRICES............................................................................... 255

TABLE 128 HYDROGEN APPLICATIONS.................................................................................... 256

VEHICLE HYDROGEN STORAGE............................................................................. 256

 Add 
13. NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION AND STORAGE257-272
$560.00
$392.00

NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION AND STORAGE .................................... 257

TABLE 129 HYDROGEN PRODUCTION NANOTECHNOLOGY............................................... 258

NANOFIBER PAPER FOR FUEL CELLS AND CATALYST

SUPPORTS................................................................................................. 259

DEVELOPMENT OF FUEL CELL CATHODIC CATALYSTS:

MULTIMETALLIC ALLOY NANOPARTICLES .................................... 260

NANOROD ARRAY PHOTOELECTROCHEMICAL HYDROGEN

PRODUCTION........................................................................................... 261

NANOCRYSTALLINE PHOTOCATALYSTS FOR HYDROGEN

PRODUCTION FROM SPLITTING OF WATER BY VISIBLE

LIGHT......................................................................................................... 261

HYDROGEN STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES............................................................................ 262

TABLE 130 DOE ON-BOARD H2 STORAGE, 2007 STATUS & 2010 AND 2015

TARGETS.................................................................................................................................... 264

TABLE 130 DOE ON-BOARD H2 STORAGE, 2007 STATUS & 2010 AND 2015

TARGETS (CONTINUED).......................................................................................................... 265

MATERIALS-BASED HYDROGEN STORAGE ......................................................... 266

TABLE 131 HYDROGEN STORAGE ISSUES............................................................................... 267

NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE............................................... 267

TABLE 132 NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE.............................................. 268

TABLE 132 NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE (CONTINUED)................... 269

NANO HYDROGEN STORAGE MATERIALS ........................................................................ 270

TABLE 133 NANO-ENABLED HYDROGEN STORAGE MATERIALS ...................................... 271

CARBON NANOTUBES.................................................................................. 272

NANO HYDRIDES........................................................................................... 272

SILICON NANOWIRE..................................................................................... 272

 Add 
14. PATENT ANALYSIS273-293
$735.00
$514.50

PATENT ANALYSIS........................................................................................................................ 273

TABLE 134 FUEL CELL PATENTS, H2 STORAGE AND NANOTECHNOLGY U.S.

PATENTS BY COUNTRY, THROUGH AUGUST 2008........................................................... 273

FIGURE 30 NANOTECHNOLOGY PATENTS BY COUNTRY, THROUGH AUG 1, 2008........ 274

FIGURE 31 HYDROGEN PRODUCTION AND STORAGE PATENTS BY COUNTRY,

THROUGH AUG 1, 2008 ............................................................................................................ 275

FIGURE 32 FUEL CELL PATENTS BY COUNTRY, THROUGH AUG 1, 2008 ........................ 276

TABLE 135 TOP FUEL CELL PATENT HOLDERS..................................................................... 277

FIGURE 33 FUEL CELL PATENTS BY ENTITY, THROUGH AUGUST 1, 2008 ..................... 278

TABLE 136 100 NANO-RELATED FUEL CELL PATENTS ........................................................ 279

TABLE 136 100 NANO-RELATED FUEL CELL PATENTS (CONTINUED) ............................. 280

TABLE 136 100 NANO-RELATED FUEL CELL PATENTS (CONTINUED) ............................. 281

TABLE 136 100 NANO-RELATED FUEL CELL PATENTS (CONTINUED) ............................. 282

TABLE 136 100 NANO-RELATED FUEL CELL PATENTS (CONTINUED) ............................. 283

TABLE 136 100 NANO-RELATED FUEL CELL PATENTS (CONTINUED) ............................. 284

TABLE 136 100 NANO-RELATED FUEL CELL PATENTS (CONTINUED) ............................. 285

TABLE 136 100 NANO-RELATED FUEL CELL PATENTS (CONTINUED) ............................. 286

TABLE 136 100 NANO-RELATED FUEL CELL PATENTS (CONTINUED) ............................. 287

TABLE 136 100 NANO-RELATED FUEL CELL PATENTS (CONTINUED) ............................. 288

TABLE 136 100 NANO-RELATED FUEL CELL PATENTS (CONTINUED) ............................. 289

TABLE 136 ........................................................................................................................................ 290

100 NANO-RELATED FUEL CELL PATENTS (CONTINUED)................................................... 290

TABLE 136 100 NANO-RELATED FUEL CELL PATENTS (CONTINUED) ............................. 291

TABLE 136 ........................................................................................................................................ 292

100 NANO-RELATED FUEL CELL PATENTS (CONTINUED)................................................... 292

TABLE 136 100 NANO-RELATED FUEL CELL PATENTS (CONTINUED) ............................. 293

 Add 
15. NANOSCALE FUEL CELL RESEARCH DIRECTIONS294-295
$70.00
$49.00

NANOSCALE FUEL CELL RESEARCH DIRECTIONS.................................................................. 294

TABLE 137 NANO-CATALYST RESEARCH FOR FUEL CELLS, 2005-2009............................ 295

 Add 
16. PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS AND NANOTECHNOLOGY296-358
$2,205.00
$1,543.50

PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS AND NANOTECHNOLOGY.......................... 296

FIGURE 34 PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELL.................................................. 298

TABLE 138 DIRECT HYDROGEN CONVERSION REACTIONS:.............................................. 298

CHEMICAL ENERGY TO ELECTRICAL ENERGY ...................................................................... 298

TABLE 139 PEMFC SYSTEM COST BY MAJOR COMPONENT, 2008..................................... 300

TABLE 140 PEMFC MEMBRANE ELECTRODE ASSEMBLY COMPONENT COSTS,

2008.............................................................................................................................................. 301

AIR MANAGEMENT.................................................................................................... 302

TABLE 141 VEHICLE CATHODE AIR BLOWER GOALS........................................................... 303

ASSEMBLY.................................................................................................................... 303

BALANCE-OF-PLANT ................................................................................................. 303

TABLE 142 BALANCE-OF-PLANT COMPONENTS AND MAJOR MANUFACTURERS........ 304

FUEL MANAGEMENT ................................................................................................ 304

HUMIDITY MANAGEMENT....................................................................................... 304

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN HUMIDITY MANAGEMENT

NANOTECHNOLOGY .............................................................................. 305

MEMBRANE ELECTRODE ASSEMBLY................................................................................ 306

TABLE 143 MEMBRANE ELECTRODE ASSEMBLY COMPONENTS & FUNCTIONS ......... 307

FIGURE 35 FIVE LAYER MEMBRANE ELECTRODE ASSEMBLY.......................................... 307

TABLE 144 MEA LAYERS............................................................................................................... 308

METHODS OF MANUFACTURING........................................................................... 309

DIRECT DEPOSITION.................................................................................... 309

DECAL TRANSFER......................................................................................... 310

TABLE 145 MEA MANUFACTURING GAPS, 2008...................................................................... 311

THERMAL MANAGEMENT........................................................................................ 311

PEMFC NANOTECHNOLOGY ................................................................................................ 312

FIGURE 36 PEMFC WITH CARBON NANOPARTICLES ........................................................... 312

TABLE 146 IMPACTS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY FUEL CELL ENERGY................................. 313

MEMBRANE ELECTRODE ASSEMBLY AND NANOTECHNOLOGY .................. 314

TABLE 147 NANOMATERIALS IN MEMBRANE ELECTRODE ASSEMBLIES...................... 314

ANODE NANOTECHNOLOGY................................................................................... 315

TABLE 148 NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR PEMFC ANODES: MATERIAL, BENEFIT,

SOURCE...................................................................................................................................... 316

NANOTECHNOLOGY AND BIPOLAR PLATES....................................................... 316

TABLE 149 BIPOLAR PLATE FUNCTIONS................................................................................. 316

TABLE 150 BIPOLAR PLATE REQUIREMENTS ........................................................................ 318

TABLE 151 BIPOLAR PLATE BARRIERS, NEEDS, AND NANO APPLICATION................... 318

SPECIFIC NANOTECHNOLOGIES FOR BIPOLAR PLATES.................... 319

TABLE 152 BIPOLAR PLATE NANOMATERIALS...................................................................... 319

GRAPHITE-BASED BIPOLAR PLATES ....................................................... 320

FLEXIBLE GRAPHITE FOIL BIPOLAR PLATES ....................................... 320

SHEET METAL BIPOLAR PLATES.............................................................. 320

TABLE 153 MANUFACTURING GAPS FOR HIGH-SPEED BIPOLAR PLATE

PROCESSES, 2008...................................................................................................................... 321

CATALYSTS.................................................................................................................. 321

TABLE 154 CATALYSTS NEEDS AND BARRIERS..................................................................... 322

NANO CATALYSTS FOR PEMFCS............................................................... 323

TABLE 155 NANO CATALYSTS FOR PEMFC ............................................................................. 326

TABLE 155 NANO CATALYSTS FOR PEMFC (CONTINUED) .................................................. 327

TABLE 155 NANO CATALYSTS FOR PEMFC (CONTINUED) .................................................. 328

TABLE 155 NANO CATALYSTS FOR PEMFC (CONTINUED) .................................................. 329

TABLE 155 NANO CATALYSTS FOR PEMFC (CONTINUED) .................................................. 330

CATHODE ..................................................................................................................... 330

TABLE 156 NEEDS FOR NEW FUEL CELL CATHODE CATALYST........................................ 331

AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS ..................................................................................................... 331

CATHODE PEMFC NANOTECHNOLOGY .................................................. 332

TABLE 157 NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR CATHODES.................................................................. 332

TABLE 157 NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR CATHODES (CONTINUED)....................................... 333

TABLE 157 NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR CATHODES (CONTINUED)....................................... 334

PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE ELECTROLYTE ............................................ 335

NAFION® .......................................................................................................... 335

POLYBENZIMIDAZOL (PBI) ......................................................................... 336

TABLE 158 PBI ADVANTAGES FOR PEMFC .............................................................................. 336

INTERMEDIATE-TEMPERATURE PROTON EXCHANGE

MEMBRANES AND STACKS .................................................................. 337

PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE NANOTECHNOLOGY..................... 337

TABLE 159 NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR PEMFC MEMBRANES ............................................... 338

TABLE 159 NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR PEMFC MEMBRANES (CONTINUED) .................... 339

TABLE 159 NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR PEMFC MEMBRANES (CONTINUED) .................... 340

TABLE 159 NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR PEMFC MEMBRANES (CONTINUED) .................... 341

TABLE 159 NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR PEMFC MEMBRANES (CONTINUED) .................... 342

TABLE 159 NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR PEMFC MEMBRANES (CONTINUED) .................... 343

TABLE 159 NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR PEMFC MEMBRANES (CONTINUED) .................... 344

TABLE 159 NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR PEMFC MEMBRANES (CONTINUED) .................... 345

GAS DIFFUSION LAYER (GDL)................................................................................. 345

GAS DIFFUSION LAYER NANOTECHNOLOGY........................................ 347

TABLE 160 GAS DIFFUSION LAYER NANOTECHNOLOGY.................................................... 348

SEALS........................................................................................................................... 349

TABLE 161 MANUFACTURING GAPS FOR HIGH-SPEED SEALING TECHNIQUES.......... 350

SEAL NANOTECHNOLOGY.......................................................................... 350

ANODE.......................................................................................................................... 351

ANODE NANOTECHNOLOGIES .................................................................. 351

TABLE 162 DMFC ANODE NANOMATERIALS........................................................................... 352

BIPOLAR PLATES........................................................................................... 352

CATALYSTS.................................................................................................................. 353

TABLE 163 DMFC NANOSTRUCTURED CATALYST ................................................................ 353

CATHODE NANOTECHNOLOGIES ............................................................. 354

DIRECT METHANOL MEMBRANES ........................................................... 354

TABLE 164 MEMBRANES FOR DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELLS ..................................... 355

HYDROCARBON NANO-ENGINEERED MEMBRANE.............................. 356

TABLE 165 DMFC MEMBRANE NANOTECHNOLOGY............................................................. 357

FUEL DIFFUSION LAYER NANOTECHNOLOGY..................................... 358

 Add 
17. SOFC RESEARCH DIRECTIONS359-396
$2,205.00
$1,543.50

SOFC RESEARCH DIRECTIONS ................................................................................................ 359

TABLE 166 SOFC NANOTECHNOLOGY BENEFITS AND BARRIERS, 2009 ......................... 359

SOFC MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING ‘RESEARCH................................................ 359

TABLE 167 SOFC COST REDUCTION RESEARCH PRIORITIES............................................ 360

TABLE 168 MATERIALS MANUFACTURING RESEARCH....................................................... 361

TABLE 168 MATERIALS MANUFACTURING RESEARCH (CONTINUED)............................ 362

ANODE.......................................................................................................................... 363

TABLE 169 SOFC ANODE MATERIALS....................................................................................... 364

TABLE 169 SOFC ANODE MATERIALS (CONTINUED)............................................................ 365

ANODE RESEARCH ....................................................................................... 365

TABLE 170 ANODE RESEARCH, 2008 ......................................................................................... 366

CATHODE ..................................................................................................................... 366

TABLE 171 SOLID OXIDE CATHODE MATERIALS................................................................... 369

CATHODE RESEARCH .................................................................................. 369

TABLE 172 CATHODE RESEARCH, 2008 .................................................................................... 370

TABLE 172 CATHODE RESEARCH, 2008 .................................................................................... 371

ELECTROLYTE ............................................................................................................ 372

FIGURE 37 ELECTROLYTE STRUCTURE IN PLANAR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ........... 372

TABLE 173 SOLID OXIDE NANO ELECTROLYTE MATERIALS............................................. 373

ELECTRODE RESEARCH.............................................................................. 374

TABLE 174 SOFC ELECTRODES RESEARCH............................................................................ 375

INTERCONNECTS....................................................................................................... 376

TABLE 175 SOLID OXIDE INTERCONNECT MATERIALS, 2008 ............................................ 378

INTERCONNECT RESEARCH...................................................................... 379

TABLE 176 INTERCONNECTS RESEARCH, 2006-2008 ............................................................ 380

TABLE 176 INTERCONNECTS RESEARCH, 2006-2008 (CONTINUED) ................................. 381

TABLE 176 INTERCONNECTS RESEARCH, 2006-2008 (CONTINUED) ................................. 382

TABLE 176 INTERCONNECTS RESEARCH, 2006-2008 (CONTINUED) ................................. 383

SEALS........................................................................................................................... 383

TABLE 177 SOLID OXIDE SEAL MATERIALS, 2008.................................................................. 385

SEALS RESEARCH......................................................................................... 385

TABLE 178 SEALS RESEARCH, 2006-2008 ................................................................................. 386

TABLE 178 SEALS RESEARCH, 2006-2008 (CONTINUED) ...................................................... 387

TABLE 178 SEALS RESEARCH, 2006-2008 (CONTINUED) ...................................................... 388

CATALYSTS.................................................................................................................. 388

CATALYST RESEARCH ................................................................................. 388

TABLE 179 CATALYST RESEARCH ............................................................................................. 389

OTHER RESEARCH..................................................................................................... 390

TABLE 180 OTHER U.S. SOLID OXIDE RESEARCH PROJECTS, 2006-2008 ........................ 391

TABLE 180 OTHER U.S. SOLID OXIDE RESEARCH PROJECTS, 2006-2008

(CONTINUED)............................................................................................................................ 392

TABLE 180 OTHER U.S. SOLID OXIDE RESEARCH PROJECTS, 2006-2008

(CONTINUED)............................................................................................................................ 393

TABLE 180 OTHER U.S. SOLID OXIDE RESEARCH PROJECTS, 2006-2008

(CONTINUED)............................................................................................................................ 394

TABLE 180 OTHER U.S. SOLID OXIDE RESEARCH PROJECTS, 2006-2008

(CONTINUED)............................................................................................................................ 395

TABLE 180 OTHER U.S. SOLID OXIDE RESEARCH PROJECTS, 2006-2008

(CONTINUED)............................................................................................................................ 396

 Add 
18. GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS397-415
$665.00
$465.50

GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS................................................................................................... 397

U.S. HYDROGEN POLICY........................................................................................................ 397

INVESTMENT TAX CREDIT EXTENSION (2008) ................................................... 397

HYDROGEN FUEL INITIATIVE (JAN. 2003) ........................................................... 398

FIGURE 38 U.S. HYDROGEN INITIATIVE $266 MILLION BUDGET EXPENDITURES

BY APPLICATION, 2009 ............................................................................................................ 398

FIGURE 39 U.S. DOE ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND RENEWABLE ENERGY (EERE)........... 399

HYDROGEN PROGRAM BUDGET 2004-2009............................................................................... 399

EPACT 2005 (PUBLIC LAW 109-58) TITLE VIII HYDROGEN............................... 399

ADVANCED ENERGY INITIATIVE (FEB. 2006)...................................................... 400

“20-IN-10” INITIATIVE (JAN. 2007) ........................................................................... 400

PRESIDENT BUSH’S ADVANCED ENERGY INITIATIVE (AEI)........................... 400

EXECUTIVE ORDER 13423 (JAN. 2007) ................................................................... 400

ENERGY INDEPENDENCE AND SECURITY ACT (DEC. 2007)............................ 400

ENERGY POLICY ACT OF 2005................................................................................. 401

DOE FUNDING $130 MILLION IN FUEL CELL RESEARCH (2008) .................... 401

HYDROGEN INITIATIVE............................................................................................ 401

REGULATORY AGENCIES FOR A HYDROGEN CITY ........................................................ 402

TABLE 181 U.S. REGULATORY AGENCIES FOR HYDRODGEN INFRASTRUCUTRE........ 403

TABLE 181 U.S. REGULATORY AGENCIES FOR HYDRODGEN INFRASTRUCUTRE

(CONTINUED)............................................................................................................................ 404

CALIFORNIA ................................................................................................................ 404

CONNECTICUT CLEAN ENERGY ............................................................................ 405

OHIO FUEL CELL COALITION................................................................................. 405

ADDITIONAL STATE REGULATIONS...................................................................... 405

REGULATION BY INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS...................................... 406

TABLE 182 FUEL CELL AND HYDROGEN ENERGY ORGANIZATIONS BY REGION,

2008.............................................................................................................................................. 407

FIGURE 40 FUEL CELL AND HYDROGEN ENERGY ORGANIZATIONS BY REGION,

2008.............................................................................................................................................. 407

TABLE 183 NANO-RELATED FUEL CELL AND HYDROGEN ENERGY

ORGANIZATIONS BY REGION, 2008...................................................................................... 408

FIGURE 41 NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR FUEL CELL AND HYDROGEN ENERGY BY

NUMBER OF ORGANIZATION BY REGION, 2008................................................................ 409

TABLE 184 NATIONS BY REGION IN FUEL CELLS, HYDROGEN ENERGY........................ 410

AND NANOTECHNOLOGY.............................................................................................................. 410

TABLE 185 FUEL CELL, H2 ENERGY AND NANOTECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT........... 411

BY REGION & COUNTRY, 2009...................................................................................................... 411

TABLE 186 TOP TWENTY COUNTRIES IN NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR FUEL CELLS

AND HYDROGEN ENERGY, 2009............................................................................................ 412

FIGURE 42 TOP TWENTY COUNTRIES IN NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR FUEL CELLS

AND HYDROGEN ENERGY, 2009............................................................................................ 413

TABLE 187 OTHER COUNTRIES NANOTECHNOLOGY, FUEL CELLS AND

HYDROGEN ENERGY, 2009 ..................................................................................................... 414

TABLE 188 VALUE OF FUEL CELL, HYDROGEN ENERGY AND RELATED

NANOTECHNOLOGY BY LEADING NATION EXPENDITURES, 2009.............................. 415

 Add 
19. NORTH AMERICA416-425
$350.00
$245.00

NORTH AMERICA.......................................................................................................................... 416

UNITED STATES....................................................................................................................... 416

TABLE 189 U.S. FUEL CELL, HYDROGEN ENERGY AND RELATED

NANOTECHNOLOGY ORGANIZATIONS, 2008..................................................................... 416

FIGURE 43 U.S. FUEL CELL AND HYDROGEN ENERGY ORGANIZATIONS ...................... 417

BY TECHNOLOGY........................................................................................................................... 417

TABLE 190 U.S. FUEL CELL AND HYDROGEN ENERGY ORGANIZATIONS BY

TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION, 2008 ...................................................................................... 418

TABLE 191 U.S. FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGY EXPENDITURES.............................................. 418

PEMFC, DMFC, SOFC, HYDROGEN ENERGY, 2008................................................................... 418

FIGURE 44 FUEL CELL NANOTECHNOLOGY, TECHNOLOGY AND TOTAL VALUE,

2008.............................................................................................................................................. 419

FIGURE 45 EXPENDITURES ON NANOTECHNOLOGY RELATED TO FUEL CELLS

AND HYDROGEN ENERGY, 2008............................................................................................ 420

TABLE 192 U.S. RANGE OF SPENDING ON NANOMATERIALS AS A PERCENTAGE

OF NANO-RELATED SPENDING BY FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGY: PEMFC,

DMFC, SOFC, AND HYDROGEN ENERGY, 2008 .................................................................. 420

TABLE 193 EXPENDITURES OF U.S. FUEL CELL AND HYDROGEN ENERGY.................. 422

ORGANIZATIONS BY TYPE, 2008.................................................................................................. 422

FIGURE 46 EXPENDITURES OF U.S. FUEL CELL AND HYDROGEN ENERGY

ORGANIZATIONS BY TYPE, 2008 ........................................................................................... 423

TABLE 194 U.S. FUEL CELL AND HYDROGEN ENERGY BY APPLICATION....................... 424

FIGURE 47 U.S. FUEL CELL AND HYDROGEN ENERGY ORGANIZATIONS ...................... 425

BY APPLICATION............................................................................................................................ 425

 Add 
20. KEY TO COUNTRY TABLES426-428
$100.00
$70.00

KEY TO COUNTRY TABLES ...................................................................................................... 426

TABLE 195 KEY TO THE COUNTRY TABLES............................................................................ 426

TABLE 196 EXAMPLE OF HOW TO READ TABLE KEYS......................................................... 428

 Add 
21. UNITED STATES429-472
$1,540.00
$1,078.00

UNITED STATES.......................................................................................................................... 429

TABLE 197 U.S. FUEL CELL, HYDROGEN ENERGY AND RELATED

NANOTECHNOLOGY ORGANIZATIONS, 2009..................................................................... 429

 Add 
22. CANADA473-478
$210.00
$147.00

CANADA...................................................................................................................................... 473

TABLE 198 CANADIAN FUEL CELL, HYDROGEN ENERGY AND RELATED

NANOTECHNOLOGY, 2008 ...................................................................................................... 473

 Add 
23. MEXICO479-480
$70.00
$49.00

MEXICO........................................................................................................................................ 479

TABLE 199 MEXICAN FUEL CELL, HYDROGEN ENERGY & RELATED

NANOTECHNOLOGY, 2008 ...................................................................................................... 479

 Add 
24. EUROPE481-491
$385.00
$269.50

EUROPE .................................................................................................................................. 481

FIGURE 48 JTI FUEL CELL AND HYDROGEN ENERGY BUDGET, 2008-2013 .................... 482

TABLE 200 INNOVATION AND DEVLOPMENT ACTION (IDA)............................................... 482

TABLE 201 EU FUEL CELLS AND HYDROGEN JOINT TECHNOLOGY INITIATIVE

RESEARCH SPENDING, 2008-2014......................................................................................... 483

FIGURE 49 DISTRIBUTION OF FCH JTI R&D EXPENDITURES, 2008-2014 ....................... 484

TABLE 202 KEY COMPANIES IN EU HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL .................................... 485

TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM............................................................................................................ 485

EUROPEAN UNION.................................................................................................................. 485

NOVEL HIGH-TEMPERATURE PROTON AND MIXED PROTON

ELECTRON CONDUCTORS FOR FUEL CELLS AND H2-SEPARATION

MEMBRANES......................................................................................................... 486

SYNTHESIS AND DURABILITY OF CNT-BASED MEAS FOR PEMFC

(NANODURAMEA) ................................................................................................ 487

BIOH2 - RENEWABLE PRODUCTION OF H2 USING BIOLOGICAL

SYSTEMS................................................................................................................ 488

TABLE 203 EUROPEAN UNION FUEL CELL, HYDROGEN ENERGY & RELATED

NANOTECHNOLOGY ................................................................................................................ 489

 Add 
25. GERMANY492-519
$980.00
$686.00

GERMANY.................................................................................................................................. 492

TABLE 204 GERMAN FUEL CELL, HYDROGEN ENERGY AND RELATED

NANOTECHNOLOGY EXPENDITURES................................................................................. 492

FIGURE 50 VALUE OF GERMAN FUEL CELL AND HYDROGEN ENERGY

INDUSTRY BY ORGANIZATION, 2008 ................................................................................... 493

TABLE 205 GERMAN FUEL CELL, HYDROGEN ENERGY AND RELATE4D

NANOTECHNOLOGY ORGANIZATIONS............................................................................... 494

 Add 
26. FRANCE520-568
$1,715.00
$1,200.50

FRANCE....................................................................................................................................... 520

TABLE 206 .................................................................................................................................. 521

FRENCH FUEL CELL, HYDROGEN ENERGY AND RELATED NANOTECHNOLOGY

ORGANIZATIONS, 2009 ............................................................................................................ 521

 Add 
27. AUSTRIA569-576
$280.00
$196.00

AUSTRIA ..................................................................................................................................... 569

TABLE 207 AUSTRIAN FUEL CELL AND HYDROGEN ENERGY ORGANIZATIONS

BY APPLICATION ...................................................................................................................... 569

TABLE 208 AUSTRIAN ORGANIZATIONS BY TYPE AND EXPENDITURES 2008............. 569

TABLE 209 AUSTRIAN FUEL CELL AND HYDROGEN ENERGY BY APPLICATION.......... 570

FIGURE 51 AUSTRIAN FUEL CELL & HYDROGEN ENERGY ORGANIZATION BY

APPLICATION............................................................................................................................ 570

TABLE 210 AUSTRIAN NANOTECHNOLOGY, FUEL CELL AND H2 ENERGY

ORGANIZATIONS ...................................................................................................................... 571

 Add 
28. BELGIUM577-579
$105.00
$73.50

BELGIUM.................................................................................................................................... 577

TABLE 211 FLEMISH FUEL CELL, HYDROGEN ENERGY AND RELATED

NANOTECHNOLOGY ORGANIZATIONS............................................................................... 577

 Add 
29. SWITZERLAND580-585
$210.00
$147.00

SWITZERLAND ........................................................................................................................ 580

TABLE 212 SWISS FUEL CELL, HYDROGEN ENERGY AND RELATED

NANOTECHNOLOGY ORGANIZATIONS............................................................................... 580

 Add 
30. DENMARK586-588
$105.00
$73.50

DENMARK.................................................................................................................................. 586

TABLE 213 DANISH FUEL CELL, HYDROGEN ENERGY AND RELATED

NANOTECHNOLOGY ORGANIZATIONS, 2009..................................................................... 586

 Add 
31. UNITED KINGDOM589-603
$525.00
$367.50

UNITED KINGDOM..................................................................................................................... 589

TABLE 214 BRITISH FUEL CELL, HYDROGEN ENERGY AND RELATED

NANOTECHNOLOGY 2009 ....................................................................................................... 589

 Add 
32. SPAIN604-612
$315.00
$220.50

SPAIN............................................................................................................................................ 604

TABLE 215 SPANISH FUEL CELL, HYDROGEN ENERGY AND RELATED

NANOTECHNOLOGY ORGANIZATIONS............................................................................... 604

 Add 
33. FINLAND613-618
$210.00
$147.00

FINLAND...................................................................................................................................... 613

TABLE 216 FINNISH FUEL CELL, HYDROGEN ENERGY AND RELATED

NANOTECHNOLOGY ORGANIZATIONS............................................................................... 613

 Add 
34. GREECE619-621
$105.00
$73.50

GREECE..................................................................................................................................... 619

TABLE 217 GREEK FUEL CELL, HYDROGEN ENERGY AND RELATED

NANOTECHNOLOGY ORGANIZATIONS............................................................................... 619

 Add 
35. ITALY622-633
$420.00
$294.00

ITALY........................................................................................................................................ 622

TABLE 218 ITALIAN FUEL CELL, HYDROGEN ENERGY AND RELATED

NANOTECHNOLOGY ORGANIZATIONS............................................................................... 622

 Add 
36. NETHERLANDS634-638
$175.00
$122.50

NETHERLANDS......................................................................................................................... 634

TABLE 219 DUTCH FUEL CELL, HYDROGEN ENERGY AND RELATED

NANOTECHNOLOGY ORGANIZATIONS............................................................................... 634

 Add 
37. NORWAY639-641
$105.00
$73.50

NORWAY ..................................................................................................................................... 639

TABLE 220 NORWEIGIAN FUEL CELL, HYDROGEN ENERGY AND RELATED

NANOTECHNOLOGY ORGANIZATIONS............................................................................... 639

 Add 
38. POLAND642-650
$315.00
$220.50

POLAND ....................................................................................................................................... 642

TABLE 221 POLISH FUEL CELL, HYDROGEN ENERGY AND RELATED

NANOTECHNOLOGY ORGANIZATIONS............................................................................... 642

 Add 
39. ROMANIA651-654
$140.00
$98.00

ROMANIA..................................................................................................................................... 651

TABLE 222 ROMANIAN FUEL CELL, HYDROGEN ENERGY AND RELATED

NANOTECHNOLOGY ORGANIZATIONS............................................................................... 651

 Add 
40. RUSSIA655-660
$210.00
$147.00

RUSSIA ......................................................................................................................................... 655

TABLE 223 RUSSIAN FUEL CELL, HYDROGEN ENERGY AND RELATED

NANOTECHNOLOGY ORGANIZATIONS............................................................................... 655

 Add 
41. ASIA - JAPAN661-696
$1,260.00
$882.00

ASIA - JAPAN............................................................................................................................... 661

TABLE 224 JAPANESE FUEL CELL, HYDROGEN ENERGY AND

NANOTECHNOLOGY, 2008 ...................................................................................................... 662

 Add 
42. CHINA697-718
$710.00
$497.00

CHINA........................................................................................................................................... 697

TABLE 225 CHINESE FUEL CELL, HYDROGEN ENERGY AND RELATED

NANOTECHNOLOGY ORGANIZATIONS............................................................................... 697

 Add 
43. KOREA719-728
$350.00
$245.00

KOREA......................................................................................................................................... 719

TABLE 226 KOREAN FUEL CELL, HYDROGEN ENERGY AND RELATED

NANOTECHNOLOGY ORGANIZATONS ................................................................................ 719

 Add 
44. TAIWAN729-735
$245.00
$171.50

TAIWAN........................................................................................................................................ 729

TABLE 227 TABLE TAIWANESE FUEL CELL, HYDROGEN ENERGY AND RELATED

NANOTECHNOLOGY ORGANIZATIONS............................................................................... 729

 Add 
45. SINGAPORE736-738
$105.00
$73.50

SINGAPORE................................................................................................................................ 736

TABLE 228 SINGAPORE’S FUEL CELL, HYDROGEN ENERGY AND RELATED

NANOTECHNOLOGY ORGANIZATIONS............................................................................... 736

 Add 
46. ISRAEL739-740
$70.00
$49.00

ISRAEL ......................................................................................................................................... 739

TABLE 229 ISRAELI FUEL CELL, HYDROGEN ENERGY AND RELATED

NANOTECHNOLOGY ORGANIZATIONS............................................................................... 739

 Add 
47. INDIA741-745
$175.00
$122.50

INDIA.......................................................................................................................................... 741

TABLE 230 INDIAN FUEL CELL, HYDROGEN ENERGY AND RELATED

NANOTECHNOLOGY ORGANIZATIONS............................................................................... 741

 Add 
48. TURKEY746-748
$105.00
$73.50

TURKEY .................................................................................................................................... 746

TABLE 231 TABLE TURKISH FUEL CELL, HYDROGEN ENERGY AND RELATED

NANOTECHNOLOGY ORGANIZATIONS............................................................................... 746

 Add 
49. AUSTRALIA749-753
$175.00
$122.50

AUSTRALIA ................................................................................................................................ 749

TABLE 232 TABLE AUSTRALIAN FUEL CELL, HYDROGEN ENERGY AND

RELATED NANOTECHNOLOGY ORGANIZATIONS............................................................ 749

 Add 
50. REST OF THE WORLD754-758
$175.00
$122.50

REST OF THE WORLD.................................................................................................................. 754

BRAZIL ...................................................................................................................................... 754

TABLE 233 BRAZILIAN FUEL CELL, HYDROGEN ENERGY AND RELATED

NANOTECHNOLOGY ORGANIZATIONS............................................................................... 755

 Add 
51. OTHER COUNTRIES759-773
$525.00
$367.50

OTHER COUNTRIES ................................................................................................................ 759

TABLE 234 AFRICAN FUEL CELL, HYDROGEN ENERGY AND RELATED

NANOTECHNOLOGY ORGANIZATIONS............................................................................... 760

TABLE 235 OTHER FUEL CELL, HYDROGEN ENERGY AND RELATED

NANOTECHNOLOGY ORGANIZATIONS BY COUNTRY..................................................... 765

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