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PIEZOELECTRIC CRYSTALS AND CRYSTAL DEVICES – TYPES, MATERIALS, APPLICATIONS, NEW DEVELOPMENTS, INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND GLOBAL MARKETS
(View Introduction/Table Of Contents)
Publish Date: Jun 2008,   Pages: 196,   Report Code: ET-108
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1. INTRODUCTIONI-IV
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INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................................................I

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES.............................................................................................I

CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE STUDY........................................................................................... II

SCOPE AND FORMAT................................................................................................................III

METHODOLOGY........................................................................................................................III

INFORMATION SOURCES ........................................................................................................ IV

TARGET AUDIENCE FOR THE STUDY .................................................................................. IV

AUTHOR’S CREDENTIALS ....................................................................................................... IV

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2. EXECUTIVE SUMMARYVI-VIII
$180.00
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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY........................................................................................................................VI

SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND SHARE FOR PIEZOELECTRIC

CRYSTAL DEVICES BY PRODUCT TYPE, 2007 AND 2012...................................................VII

SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR

PIEZOELECTRIC CRYSTAL DEVICES BY PRODUCT TYPE, 2007 AND 2012 ................ VIII

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3. INDUSTRY OVERVIEW1-12
$600.00
$300.00

INDUSTRY OVERVIEW ............................................................................................................................ 1

BROAD CATEGORY OF DEVICES.............................................................................................. 2

TIMING DEVICES............................................................................................................ 2

SENSING DEVICES......................................................................................................... 3

OPTICAL DEVICES.......................................................................................................... 3

MARKET SEGMENTS .................................................................................................................. 4

TELECOMMUNICATION................................................................................................ 4

MILITARY AND GOVERNMENT ................................................................................... 5

AUTOMOTIVE .................................................................................................................. 5

MEDICAL .......................................................................................................................... 6

COMPUTING .................................................................................................................... 7

INDUSTRIAL .................................................................................................................... 7

CONSUMER...................................................................................................................... 7

INDUSTRY STRUCTURE............................................................................................................. 8

TABLE 1 LEADING MANUFACTURERS OF PIEZOELECTRIC CRYSTALS AND

DEVICES IN NORTH AMERICA .................................................................................................. 9

TABLE 1 LEADING MANUFACTURERS OF PIEZOELECTRIC CRYSTALS AND

DEVICES IN NORTH AMERICA (CONTINUED) ..................................................................... 10

TABLE 2 LEADING MANUFACTURERS OF PIEZOELECTRIC CRYSTALS AND

DEVICES IN JAPAN .................................................................................................................... 11

TABLE 3 LEADING MANUFACTURERS OF PIEZOELECTRIC CRYSTALS AND

DEVICES IN EUROPE................................................................................................................. 11

TABLE 4 LEADING MANUFACTURERS OF PIEZOELECTRIC CRYSTALS AND

DEVICES IN THE REST OF THE WORLD ............................................................................... 12

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4. TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW13-87
$2,625.00
$1,312.50

TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW ................................................................................................................... 13

PIEZOELECTRIC CRYSTALS.................................................................................................... 13

TABLE 5 PIEZOELECTRIC CRYSTAL MATERIALS AND THEIR PROPERTIES.................... 14

THE BRAVAIS-MILLER SYSTEM................................................................................ 14

FIGURE 1 ILLUSTRATION OF CRYSTAL SHOWING THE B-M SYSTEM............................... 15

ORTHOGONAL SYSTEM .............................................................................................. 15

FIGURE 2 CROSS-SECTION OF A CRYSTAL SHOWING THE ORTHOGONAL

SYSTEM........................................................................................................................................ 16

FIGURE 3 QUARTZ CYRSTAL STUCTURE, I.R.E. AXES AND ANGLES, AND

PRINCIPAL CUTS ........................................................................................................................ 16

CRYSTAL TYPES......................................................................................................................... 17

QUARTZ.......................................................................................................................... 18

FACTORS AFFECTING CRYSTAL PERFORMANCE................................... 19

CUT ........................................................................................................ 19

TABLE 6 RECOMMENDED ELEMENT VS. FREQUENCY RANGE ........................................... 20

FIGURE 4 AT-CUT QUARTZ CRYSTAL ......................................................................................... 20

AGING.................................................................................................... 21

TEMPERATURE STABILITY.............................................................. 21

LOAD CAPACITANCE......................................................................... 21

FREQUENCY TOLERANCE ............................................................... 21

DRIVE LEVEL ...................................................................................... 21

CRYSTAL QUALITY FACTOR (Q)...................................................... 22

FABRICATION TRENDS.................................................................................. 22

OTHER PIEZO-CRYSTALS ........................................................................................... 22

TABLE 7 PROPERTIES OF VARIOUS PIEZOELECTRIC CRYSTALS....................................... 23

ROCHELLE SALT ............................................................................................. 24

TOURMALINE................................................................................................... 24

AMMONIUM DIHYDROGEN PHOSPHATE (ADP) ....................................... 25

LITHIUM NIOBATE.......................................................................................... 25

LITHIUM TANTALATE....................................................................... 26

BISMUTH GERMANIUM OXIDE.................................................................... 26

LANGASITE....................................................................................................... 26

BERLINITE........................................................................................................ 27

ZINC OXIDE....................................................................................................... 27

PMNT AND PZNT.............................................................................................. 28

THE BASIC PROCESS OF GROWING CULTURED QUARTZ.................................. 28

PROCESSING INTO A CRYSTAL BLANK..................................................... 29

FIGURE 5 MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF CRYSTAL BLANKS............................................ 29

FREQUENCY ADJUSTMENT AND CLEANING........................................... 30

SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVE (SAW) TECHNOLOGY............................................... 30

SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVE (SAW) TECHNOLOGY

(CONTINUED)............................................................................................. 31

FIGURE 6 STRUCTURAL AND OPEARTIONAL PRINCIPLE OF SURFACE

ACOUSTIC WAVE TECHNOLOGY............................................................................................. 32

TABLE 8 EXPLANATION OF PARAMETERS USED IN SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVE

(SAW) DEVICES........................................................................................................................... 33

TABLE 9 SAW MATERIALS.............................................................................................................. 34

SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVE (SAW) TECHNOLOGY

(CONTINUED)............................................................................................. 35

BULK ACOUSTIC WAVE (BAW) TECHNOLOGY..................................................... 36

FIGURE 7 STRUCTURAL PRINCIPLE OF BULK ACOUSTIC WAVE TECHNOLOGY............ 37

PIEZOELECTRIC CRYSTAL DEVICES.................................................................................... 38

TABLE 10 COMMONLY USED CRYSTAL FREQUENCIES......................................................... 38

TABLE 10 COMMONLY USED CRYSTAL FREQUENCIES (CONTINUED).............................. 39

TABLE 10 COMMONLY USED CRYSTAL FREQUENCIES (CONTINUED).............................. 40

DEFINITIONS................................................................................................................. 40

TABLE 11 EXPLANATION OF CRYSTAL DEVICE PARAMETERS............................................ 40

TABLE 11 EXPLANATION OF CRYSTAL DEVICE PARAMETERS (CONTINUED)................. 41

TABLE 11 EXPLANATION OF CRYSTAL DEVICE PARAMETERS (CONTINUED)................. 42

TABLE 11 EXPLANATION OF CRYSTAL DEVICE PARAMETERS (CONTINUED)................. 43

CRYSTAL UNITS (RESONATORS) .............................................................................. 44

TABLE 12 COMPARISON OF CRYSTAL RESONATORS............................................................. 45

FIGURE 8 ELECTRICAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF PIEZOELECTRIC CRYSTAL.............. 46

KHZ TUNING FORKS....................................................................................... 46

TABLE 13 TYPICAL FREQUENCY STANDARD OF CRYSTALS UNITS USED IN

CRYSTAL WATCHES (FREQUENCY-32.768 KHZ) ................................................................. 47

MHZ CRYSTALS – AT....................................................................................... 47

FIGURE 9 MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF CRYSTAL RESONATORS................................. 48

TYPES OF SEALS FOR QUARTZ CRYSTAL RESONATORS ...................... 49

THREE KEY PROPERTIES OF QUARTZ RESONATORS............................ 49

SAW RESONATORS.......................................................................................... 50

FIGURE 10 CONSTRUCTIONAL PRINCIPLE OF SAW RESONATOR ...................................... 51

APPLICATIONS................................................................................................. 51

OSCILLATORS................................................................................................................ 52

XO 53

TCXO................................................................................................................... 53

VCXO................................................................................................................... 54

OCXO .................................................................................................................. 54

RUBIDIUM ATOMIC OSCILLATORS............................................................. 55

CESIUM ATOMIC OSCILLATORS.................................................................. 56

HYDROGEN MASER ATOMIC OSCILLATORS ............................................ 56

FIGURE 11 CONSTRUCTIONAL PRINCIPLE OF ATOMIC FREQUENCY

OSCILLATORS............................................................................................................................. 57

TABLE 14 HIERARCHY OF OSCILLATORS.................................................................................. 58

REAL TIME CLOCKS (RTCS) ....................................................................................... 58

FILTERS .......................................................................................................................... 59

MONOLITHIC CRYSTAL FILTER (MCF)....................................................... 59

SAW FILTERS.................................................................................................... 60

FIGURE 12 CONSTRUCTION PRINCIPLE OF SAW FILTERS................................................... 61

FIGURE 13 COMPARISON OF SAW BANDPASS FILTERS WITH DIELECTRIC

RESONATORS AND LC MULTILAYER FILTERS................................................................... 63

TABLE 15 COMPARISON OF SAW BAND PASS FILTER WITH QUARTZ AND

OTHER TECHNOLOGIES........................................................................................................... 64

SAW FILTERS (CONTINUED)............................................................ 65

FIGURE 14 BAND PASS FILTER SPECIFICATION PARAMETERS......................................... 66

TABLE 16 TYPICAL SPACE REQUIREMENTS OF PIEZO CRYSTAL DEVICES/SAW

IN MOBILE PHONES................................................................................................................... 67

TABLE 16 TYPICAL SPACE REQUIREMENTS OF PIEZO CRYSTAL DEVICES/SAW

IN MOBILE PHONES (CONTINUED)........................................................................................ 68

PIEZO-CRYSTAL SENSORS ......................................................................................... 69

TABLE 17 EXPLANATION OF TERMINOLOGIES RELATED TO SURFACE

ACOUSTIC WAVE (SAW) SENSORS.......................................................................................... 70

TABLE 18 COMPARISON OF ACOUSTIC SENSORS................................................................... 70

FIGURE 15 PIEZOCRYSTAL CUTS FOR SENSOR APPLICATIONS......................................... 71

ACCELEROMETERS/GYROS .......................................................................... 71

TABLE 19 EXPLANATION OF PARAMETERS USED IN PIEZO-CRYSTAL

ACCELERATOR........................................................................................................................... 72

TABLE 19 EXPLANATION OF PARAMETERS USED IN PIEZO-CRYSTAL

ACCELERATOR (CONTINUED) ................................................................................................. 73

TEMPERATURE SENSORS ............................................................................. 74

PRESSURE SENSORS...................................................................................... 75

QUARTZ CRYSTAL MICROBALANCES ........................................................ 76

TORQUE SENSORS .......................................................................................... 77

MASS SENSORS................................................................................................ 77

DEW POINT/HUMIDITY SENSORS ............................................................... 78

VAPOR CHEMICAL SENSORS........................................................................ 78

SURFACE TRANSVERSE WAVE (STW) SENSORS...................................... 79

FIGURE 16 COMPARISON OF SAW AND STW TECHNOLOGIES............................................. 79

PIEZO-CRYSTAL OPTICAL DEVICES ........................................................................ 80

OPTICAL LOW PASS FILTERS (OLPF) AND OTHER DEVICES ............... 80

TABLE 20 EXPLANATION OF TECHNICAL PARAMETERS RELATED TO PIEZOCRYSTAL

OPTICAL DEVICES ................................................................................................... 81

TABLE 20 EXPLANATION OF TECHNICAL PARAMETERS RELATED TO PIEZOCRYSTAL

OPTICAL DEVICES (CONTINUED) ........................................................................ 82

TABLE 20 EXPLANATION OF TECHNICAL PARAMETERS RELATED TO PIEZOCRYSTAL

OPTICAL DEVICES (CONTINUED) ........................................................................ 83

FIGURE 17 ACOUSTO-OPTIC MODULATOR................................................................................ 84

NEW DEVELOPMENTS AND TRENDS IN PIEZO-CRYSTALS ............................................ 84

NEW DEVELOPMENTS AND TRENDS IN PIEZO-CRYSTALS

(CONTINUED).......................................................................................................... 85

CERAMIC PACKAGING ................................................................................................ 86

CHIP-SCALE PACKAGING (CSP) ................................................................................ 86

COMPOSITE FILTER .................................................................................................... 87

FUTURE ENDEAVORS ................................................................................................. 87

 Add 
5. MARKET ANALYSIS88-130
$1,720.00
$860.00

MARKET ANALYSIS............................................................................................................................... 88

TABLE 21 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR PIEZOELECTRIC

CRYSTAL DEVICES BY PRODUCT SEGMENT, 2007 AND 2012 .......................................... 88

TABLE 22 MARKET OF PIEZO-CRYSTAL DEVICES BY PRODUCT CATEGORY................... 89

FIGURE 18 MARKET OF PIEZO-CRYTALS DEVICES BY PRODUCTS .................................... 90

FIGURE 19 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR PIEZOELECTRIC

CRYSTAL DEVICES BY PRODUCT TYPE, 2007 AND 2012.................................................... 91

MARKET BY FUNCTION........................................................................................................... 92

TIMING DEVICE MARKET .......................................................................................... 92

SENSOR MARKET ......................................................................................................... 93

OPTICAL DEVICE MARKET ........................................................................................ 93

MARKET BY PRODUCT TYPE.................................................................................................. 93

PIEZO-CRYSTAL RESONATORS MARKET................................................................ 93

TABLE 23 MARKET FOR PIEZO-CRYSTAL RESONATORS, 2007-2012.................................... 94

PIEZO-CRYSTAL OSCILLATORS MARKET............................................................... 94

TABLE 24 MARKET FOR PIEZO-CRYSTAL OSCILLATORS, 2007-2012 ................................... 94

PIEZO-CRYSTAL REAL TIME CLOCK MARKET...................................................... 95

TABLE 25 MARKET FOR PIEZO-CRYSTAL REAL TIME CLOCK MODULES, 2007-

2012................................................................................................................................................ 95

PIEZO-CRYSTAL FILTERS MARKET ......................................................................... 95

TABLE 26 MARKET FOR PIEZO-CRYSTAL FILTERS, 2007-2012.............................................. 95

PIEZO-CRYSTAL ACCELERATORS AND SENSORS MARKET .............................. 95

TABLE 27 MARKET FOR PIEZO-CRYSTAL ACCELERATORS AND SENSORS, 2007-

2012................................................................................................................................................ 96

PIEZO-CRYSTAL OPTICAL DEVICES MARKET....................................................... 96

TABLE 28 MARKET FOR PIEZO-CRYSTAL OPTICAL DEVICES, 2007-2012 ........................... 96

MARKET BY MATERIAL TYPES AND TECHNOLOGY......................................................... 97

TABLE 29 MARKET FOR PIEZO-CRYSTAL DEVICES ADOPTING ACOUSTIC WAVE

TECHNOLOGY BY PREFERENCE FOR WAFER MATERIALS USED IN 2007 AND

FORECAST USE THROUGH 2012 ............................................................................................. 98

MARKET BY MATERIAL TYPES AND TECHNOLOGY (CONTINUED)................. 99

MARKET BY MATERIAL TYPES AND TECHNOLOGY (CONTINUED)............... 100

TABLE 30 MARKET FOR PIEZO-CRYSTAL DEVICES USING CONVENTIONAL

TECHNOLOGY BY PREFERENCE OF MATERIALS USED IN 2007 AND

FORECAST FOR 2012 ................................................................................................................ 101

TABLE 31 GLOBAL MARKET OF PIEZO-CRYSTAL DEVICES BY MATERIAL USED

(SAW PROCESS + CONVENTIONAL PROCESS), 2007 & FORECAST FOR 2012............. 102

FIGURE 20 GLOBAL MARKET OF PIEZO-CRYSTAL DEVICES BY MATERIAL USED

(SAW PROCESS AND CONVENTIONAL PROCESS), 2007 & FORECAST FOR 2012....... 103

MARKET TRENDS .................................................................................................................... 104

MARKET DYNAMICS ............................................................................................................... 104

DRIVERS FOR CRYSTAL-BASED DEVICES............................................................ 105

SAW RESONATORS..................................................................................................... 106

OSCILLATORS.............................................................................................................. 107

CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR-XO.......................................................................... 107

VOLTAGE CONTROLLED OSCILLATOR.................................................... 108

TEMPERATURE COMPENSATED CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR-TCXO........ 108

OVEN CONTROLLED CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR-OCXO............................. 109

SMALL ATOMIC DREQUENCY ATANDARD-RB-OSCILLATORS ........... 109

REAL TIME CLOCK MODULES................................................................................. 110

FILTERS ........................................................................................................................ 110

MONOLITHIC CRYSTAL FILTER (MCF)..................................................... 110

SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVE (SAW) FILTERS........................................... 110

SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVE (SAW) FILTERS

(CONTINUED).............................................................................. 111

SENSORS ...................................................................................................................... 112

ACCELEROMETERS/GYROS ........................................................................ 112

TEMPERATURE SENSING............................................................................ 113

PRESSURE SENSING..................................................................................... 113

QUARTZ CRYSTAL MICROBALANCE (QCM) PRODUCTS ...................... 113

OTHER SENSORS........................................................................................... 113

OPTICAL DEVICES...................................................................................................... 114

MARKET BY APPLICATION ................................................................................................... 115

TABLE 32 BREAKUP OF PIEZOELECTRIC CRYSTAL FREQUENCY DEVICES BY

APPLICATION, 2007 AND 2012 ................................................................................................ 115

FIGURE 21 BREAKUP OF PIEZOELECTRIC CRYSTAL FREQUENCY DEVICES BY

APPLICATION, 2007 AND 2012 ................................................................................................ 116

TELECOMMUNICATIONS APPLICATIONS............................................................ 117

TELECOMMUNICATIONS APPLICATIONS (CONTINUED) .................... 118

TELECOMMUNICATIONS APPLICATIONS (CONTINUED) .................... 119

TELECOMMUNICATIONS APPLICATIONS (CONTINUED) .................... 120

INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS................................................................................... 121

INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS (CONTINUED)........................................... 122

MEDICAL APPLICATIONS......................................................................................... 123

AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS................................................................................. 123

COMPUTING APPLICATIONS................................................................................... 124

CONSUMER APPLICATIONS..................................................................................... 124

CONSUMER APPLICATIONS (CONTINUED) ............................................ 125

MILITARY AND GOVERNMENT APPLICATIONS.................................................. 126

MILITARY AND GOVERNMENT APPLICATIONS (CONTINUED)....................... 127

MARKET BY REGION .............................................................................................................. 128

TABLE 33 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR PIEZOELECTRIC

CRYSTAL DEVICES BY REGION, 2007 AND 2012 ................................................................ 128

FIGURE 22 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR PIEZOELECTRIC

CRYSTAL DEVICES BY REGION, 2007 AND 2012 ................................................................ 129

MARKET BY REGION (CONTINUED) ...................................................................... 130

 Add 
6. INDUSTRY STRUCTURE131-141
$550.00
$275.00

INDUSTRY STRUCTURE...................................................................................................................... 131

COMPETITION......................................................................................................................... 132

TABLE 34 TOP COMPANIES SHARING THE GLOBAL MARKET FOR PIEZOCRYSTAL

BASED DEVICES THROUGH 2007 ....................................................................... 133

COMPETITION (CONTINUED) .................................................................................. 134

TABLE 35 PIEZO-CRYSTAL MATERIAL (WAFERS AND CRYSTALS) TOP

SUPPLIERS PRODUCT LINE REFERENCE.......................................................................... 135

TABLE 35 PIEZO-CRYSTAL MATERIAL (WAFERS AND CRYSTALS) TOP

SUPPLIERS PRODUCT LINE REFERENCE (CONTINUED)............................................... 136

MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS............................................................................................ 136

TABLE 36 ACQUISITION DEALS AMONG MANUFACTURERS OF PIEZOELECTRIC

DEVICES FROM 2000 TO 2007................................................................................................. 137

MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS (CONTINUED).................................................... 138

TABLE 37 PIEZO-CRYSTAL DEVICES SUPPLIERS PRODUCT LINE REFERENCE........... 139

TABLE 37 PIEZO-CRYSTAL DEVICES SUPPLIERS PRODUCT LINE REFERENCE

(CONTINUED)............................................................................................................................ 140

TABLE 37 PIEZO-CRYSTAL DEVICES SUPPLIERS PRODUCT LINE REFERENCE

(CONTINUED)............................................................................................................................ 141

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7. PATENTS AND PATENT ANALYSIS142-147
$210.00
$105.00

PATENTS AND PATENT ANALYSIS................................................................................................... 142

PATENT ANALYSIS.................................................................................................................. 142

EXISTING PATENT PORTFOLIOS COVERING TECHNOLOGIES

ASSOCIATED WITH PIEZO-CRYSTAL DEVICES FOCUS PRIMARILY

ON MATERIALS USED, DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, ASSEMBLY,

TESTING AND PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS. THE

TIMEFRAME FOR EVALUATION COVERS JANUARY 2003

THROUGH NOVEMBER 2007. TABLE 38 PROVIDES THE NUMBER

OF U.S. PATENTS ISSUED TO EACH OF 18 COMPANIES OVER THE

FIVE-YEAR PERIOD. THESE ARE FURTHER ILLUSTRATED IN

FIGURES 23 AND 24. ............................................................................................ 142

TABLE 38 NUMBER OF US PATENTS GRANTED TO EIGHTEEN COMPANIES

MANUFACTURING PIEZO-CRYSTAL DEVICES, 2003 THROUGH NOVEMBER

2007.............................................................................................................................................. 143

FIGURE 23 FIRST NINE COMPANIES BY NUMBER OF PATENTS GRANTED FOR

PIEZO-CRYSTAL DEVICES, JAN. 2003 TO NOV. 2007 ....................................................... 144

FIGURE 24 REMAINING COMPANIES BY NUMBER OF PATENTS GRANTED FOR

PIEZOELECTRIC DEVICES, JAN. 2003 TO NOV. 2007....................................................... 145

INTERNATIONAL OVERVIEW OF U.S. PATENT ACTIVITY IN PIEZO-CRYSTAL

DEVICES............................................................................................................................. 146

TABLE 39 US PATENTS GRANTED BY ASSIGNED COUNTRY/REGION FOR

PIEZO-CRYSTAL DEVICES FROM JAN. 2003 TO NOV. 2007 ............................................. 146

INTERNATIONAL OVERVIEW OF U.S. PATENT ACTIVITY IN PIEZOCRYSTAL

DEVICES (CONTINUED) ................................................................... 147

 Add 
8. COMPANY PROFILES148-187
$1,400.00
$700.00

COMPANY PROFILES.......................................................................................................................... 148

ABRACON CORPORATION. .................................................................................................... 148

ADVANCED CRYSTAL TECHNOLOGY ................................................................................. 148

AEL CRYSTALS,USA................................................................................................................ 149

BLILEY TECHNOLOGIES, INC. ............................................................................................. 149

CITIZEN COMPONENT SALES DIVISION ........................................................................... 150

COLORADO CRYSTAL CORPORATION................................................................................ 150

CONNOR-WINFIELD CORPORATION .................................................................................. 151

CRADLEY CRYSTAL, RUSSIA ................................................................................................ 152

CROVEN CRYSTALS ................................................................................................................ 152

CRYSTAL TECHNOLOGY, INC. .............................................................................................. 153

CTS CORPORATION................................................................................................................. 153

DAISHINKU CORP (KDS) ........................................................................................................ 154

ECLIPTEK CORPORATION..................................................................................................... 154

ECS INTERNATIONAL............................................................................................................. 155

EPCOS AG ................................................................................................................................. 156

EPSON TOYOCOM.................................................................................................................... 157

EUROQUARTZ LIMITED......................................................................................................... 158

FOMOS-MATERIALS................................................................................................................ 159

FOX ELECTRONICS (U.S.)....................................................................................................... 160

FUJITSU MEDIA DEVICES LIMITED ................................................................................... 160

FREQUENCY ELECTRONICS, INC........................................................................................ 161

H. C. JAUCH, GERMANY (SAME AS JAUCH.DE) ................................................................ 161

H.ELE., TAIWAN....................................................................................................................... 162

HOFFMAN MATERIALS, INC. ................................................................................................ 162

ILSI AMERICA.......................................................................................................................... 163

INTERNATIONAL CRYSTAL MANUFACTURING............................................................... 163

KRISTALL-RUSSIA................................................................................................................... 164

KVG QUARTZ CRYSTAL TECHNOLOGY GMBH................................................................. 165

KYOCERA KEINSKI ................................................................................................................. 166

MAGIC XTAL LTD..................................................................................................................... 167

MATSUSHITA ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS CO., LTD. ................................................... 167

MERCURY UNITED ELECTRONICS, INC ............................................................................ 167

MICRO CRYSTAL...................................................................................................................... 168

MORION INC. ............................................................................................................................ 168

MMD COMPONENTS ............................................................................................................... 169

MMC ELECTRONICS AMERICA............................................................................................. 169

MTI-MILLIREN TECHNOLOGIES INC.................................................................................. 170

MURATA MANUFACTURING CO., LTD. ............................................................................... 170

MTRONPTI ................................................................................................................................ 171

INTERNATIONAL DIVISION................................................................................................. 171

NDK............................................................................................................................................ 172

NEC CORPORATION................................................................................................................ 172

OKI SYSTEMS (UK) LTD.......................................................................................................... 173

OSCILLOQUARTZ SA............................................................................................................... 173

PERICOM .................................................................................................................................. 174

PHONON INCORPORATED..................................................................................................... 174

QUARTZDYNE INC................................................................................................................... 175

QUARTEX.................................................................................................................................. 175

RODITI INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION LTD................................................................. 175

RAKON LTD.............................................................................................................................. 176

RAMI TECHNOLOGY GROUP................................................................................................. 176

RF MONOLITHICS, USA.......................................................................................................... 177

RIVER ELECTRONICS (SINGAPORE) PTE.LTD. ................................................................. 177

SAMSUNG ELECTRO-MECHANICS ...................................................................................... 178

SAWYER TECHNICAL MATERIALS, LLC ............................................................................ 178

SHENZHEN JINGYUAN PRECISION FREQUENCY DEVICE CORP. LTD...................... 179

SHIN-ETSU CHEMICAL CO., LTD ......................................................................................... 179

SHENZHEN CRYSTAL TECHNOLOGY INDUSTRIAL CO.,LTD. ....................................... 180

SIWARD INTERNATIONAL, INC............................................................................................ 180

TAI-SAW TECHNOLOGY CO., LTD. ....................................................................................... 181

TAITIEN ELECTRONICS CO., LTD. ....................................................................................... 181

TEMEX SAS............................................................................................................................... 182

TXC TAIWAN............................................................................................................................ 182

TEW............................................................................................................................................ 183

VALPEY-FISHER CORPORATION ......................................................................................... 184

VECTRON INTERNATIONAL ................................................................................................. 185

VISHAY INTERTECHNOLOGY, INC...................................................................................... 186

WENZEL ASSOCIATES, INC. .................................................................................................. 186

WILCOXON RESEARCH, INC. ................................................................................................ 187

XECO INC.................................................................................................................................. 187

 Add 
9. APPENDIX I - SPECIFICS OF SELECTED KEY IEEE NETWORKS188-191
$140.00
$70.00

APPENDIX I - SPECIFICS OF SELECTED KEY IEEE NETWORKS............................................... 188

TABLE 40 SUMMARY OF THE SPECIFICS OF SELECTED KEY IEEE WIRELESS

LAN (LOCAL AREA NETWORK), MANS (MUNICIPAL AREA NETWORK), AND

PANS (PERSONAL AREA NETWORK) .................................................................................... 188

TABLE 40 SUMMARY OF THE SPECIFICS OF SELECTED KEY IEEE WIRELESS

LAN, MANS, AND PANS (CONTINUED)................................................................................. 189

TABLE 40 SUMMARY OF THE SPECIFICS OF SELECTED KEY IEEE WIRELESS

LAN, MANS, AND PANS (CONTINUED)................................................................................. 190

TABLE 40 SUMMARY OF THE SPECIFICS OF SELECTED KEY IEEE WIRELESS

LAN, MANS, AND PANS (CONTINUED)................................................................................. 191

 Add 
10. APPENDIX II - FREQUENCY SPECTRUM ALLOCATION IN PROTOCOLS192-193
$70.00
$35.00

APPENDIX II – FREQUENCY SPECTRUM ALLOCATION IN PROTOCOLS ................................ 192

TABLE 41 FREQUENCY SPECTRUM ALLOCATION IN JIGBEE/BLUETOOTH/WIFI

PROTOCOLS .......................................................................................................................... 192

TABLE 41 FREQUENCY SPECTRUM ALLOCATION IN JIGBEE/BLUETOOTH/WIFI

PROTOCOLS (CONTINUED) ............................................................................................... 193

 Add 
11. APPENDIX III - TERMS USED IN WIRELESS COMMUNICATION194-196
$105.00
$52.50

APPENDIX III – TERMS USED IN WIRELESS COMMUNICATION.............................................. 194

TABLE 42 EXPLANATION OF TERMS USED IN WIRELESS COMMUNICATION............... 194

TABLE 42 EXPLANATION OF TERMS USED IN WIRELESS COMMUNICATION

(CONTINUED)............................................................................................................................ 195

TABLE 42 EXPLANATION OF TERMS USED IN WIRELESS COMMUNICATION

(CONTINUED)............................................................................................................................ 196

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